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Prokaryotic cell reproduction Binary Fission. Eukaryotic Cell Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Prokaryotic cell reproduction Binary Fission. Eukaryotic Cell Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prokaryotic cell reproduction Binary Fission

2 Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

3 Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction: Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells. This makes identical copies (clones) Meiosis: cell reproduction for the production of gametes, such as egg and sperm (sex cells) How many chromosomes in a human cell such as a skin cell? How many chromosomes in egg and sperm?

4 Human Karyotype Is this person male or female?

5 46 Mitosis One division 46 chromosomes replication chromatids chromosomes 23 chromosomes Meiosis Two divisions

6 Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells. This makes identical copies (clones) What are some examples of mitosis in the body? Cuts and scrapes Embryonic growth Aging Stomach cells What are some examples of mitosis in other organisms? Asexual reproduction (budding and fragmentation) Plants: growth of roots and stems Regeneration (starfish arm, lizard tail)

7 46 Mitosis One division 46 chromosomes replication chromatids chromosomes 23 chromosomes Meiosis Two divisions

8 Sister Chromatids Chromosome Sister Chromatids DNA Replication centromere

9 Phases in Mitosis Interphase: DNA replication Prophase: chromosomes thicken, nucleus disappears Metaphase: chromosomes line up at center Anaphase: centromeres split, sister chromatids separate Telophase: cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm

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13 Applications of Mitosis? Cancer = abnormal growth of cells

14 Control of the Cell Cycle MPF is a protein that triggers mitosis. Where is MPF in high amounts and in low amounts?

15 Regulation of Cell Cycle What controls cell reproduction? MPF = Maturation Promoting Factor MPF = cyclin + cdk (cdc2) Protein Kinase = activates other proteins i.e. spindle fibers that move chromosomes Two functions of MPF: 1. triggers mitosis 2. activates enzymes to breakdown cyclin (negative feedback)

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19 Cancer Transformation = process that converts a normal cell to a cancer cell Tumor = loss of cell cycle control = abnormal growth of cells Benign = noncancerous, Malignant = cancerous Metastasis = spread rate of a malignant cancer to locations other than their origin (tumor cells enter blood vessels and travel to other parts of the body)

20 Meiosis: cell reproduction for the production of gametes, such as egg and sperm (sex cells) Meiosis cuts the number of chromosomes in half Meiosis occurs in gonads Gonads are reproductive organs (such as ovaries and testes) 2 divisions 1 st Meiotic division 2 nd Meiotic division Interphase Prophase II Prophase I Metaphase II Metaphase I Anaphase II Anaphase I Telophase II Telophase I

21 Homologous Pair (Homologous Chromosomes) Chromosomes that carry genes in the same place for the same traits One is maternal in origin (from the egg) The other is paternal in origin (from the sperm) Hair color Eye color Skin tone hitchikers earlobes widow’s

22 1 st Meiotic Division Interphase: DNA replication Prophase I: crossing over Metaphase I: independent assortment Anaphase I: homologous pairs separate, centromeres intact Telophase I: cytokinesis

23 2 nd Meiotic Division Prophase II: reorganization, no crossing over Metaphase II: chromosomes line up with centromere on line Anaphase II: centromere splits, sister chromatids separate Telophase II: cytokinesis


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