3Eukaryotic Cell Reproduction: Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement ofcells. This makes identical copies (clones)Meiosis: cell reproduction for the production of gametes,such as egg and sperm (sex cells)How many chromosomes in a human cell such as a skin cell?How many chromosomes in egg and sperm?
6Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells Mitosis: cell reproduction for growth and replacement of cells. This makes identical copies (clones)What are some examples of mitosis in the body?Cuts and scrapesEmbryonic growthAgingStomach cellsWhat are some examples of mitosis in other organisms?Asexual reproduction (budding and fragmentation)Plants: growth of roots and stemsRegeneration (starfish arm, lizard tail)
8Sister Chromatids Chromosome Sister Chromatids centromere DNA ReplicationChromosomeSister Chromatids
9Phases in Mitosis Interphase: DNA replication Prophase: chromosomes thicken, nucleus disappearsMetaphase: chromosomes line up at centerAnaphase: centromeres split, sister chromatids separateTelophase: cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm
19CancerTransformation = process that converts a normal cell to a cancer cellTumor = loss of cell cycle control = abnormal growth of cellsBenign = noncancerous, Malignant = cancerousMetastasis = spread rate of a malignant cancer to locations other than their origin(tumor cells enter blood vessels and travel to other parts of the body)
20Meiosis: cell reproduction for the production of gametes, such as egg and sperm (sex cells) Meiosis cuts the number of chromosomes in halfMeiosis occurs in gonadsGonads are reproductive organs (such as ovaries and testes)2 divisions 1st Meiotic division nd Meiotic division Interphase Prophase II Prophase I Metaphase IIMetaphase I Anaphase II Anaphase I Telophase II Telophase I
21Homologous Pair (Homologous Chromosomes) Chromosomes that carry genes in the same place for the same traitsOne is maternal in origin (from the egg)The other is paternal in origin (from the sperm)Hair colorEye colorhitchikersearlobesSkin tonewidow’s
232nd Meiotic Division Prophase II: reorganization, no crossing over Metaphase II: chromosomes line up with centromere on lineAnaphase II: centromere splits, sister chromatids separateTelophase II: cytokinesis