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MCAS PREP GUIDE PAGES 3-4 EUKARYOTE AND PROKARYOTES PLANT AND ANIMALS ORGANELLES – CELL PARTS.

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Presentation on theme: "MCAS PREP GUIDE PAGES 3-4 EUKARYOTE AND PROKARYOTES PLANT AND ANIMALS ORGANELLES – CELL PARTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 MCAS PREP GUIDE PAGES 3-4 EUKARYOTE AND PROKARYOTES PLANT AND ANIMALS ORGANELLES – CELL PARTS

2 TYPES OF CELLS ALL living things are made of cells There are two types – Prokaryotes Bacteria (only) Smaller/ more simple cells NO NUCLEUS!!! – Eukaryotes All others (animal, plant, fungus, protist) Bigger/more complex, more organelles HAVE A NUCLEUS TO HOLD THE DNA!!

3 PLANTS AND ANIMAL Both are Eukaryotes (have a nucleus) There are a few differences that help you tell them apart – Plants Have cell wall Have chloroplast Have BIG Vacuole – Animals Have centrioles Have cilia and flagella

4 ORGANELLES The parts of a cell are called organelles (“little organs”). Each one has a specific job or function. Practice matching each organelle with 2 or 3 words that relate to its function. – Use the ones in your packet or the quizlet website here.

5 Practice Questions These are all real MCAS questions Be sure to read the bold and underlined parts over to see how to find correct answers!!!

6 Each of the illustrations below shows either a prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell. Which two cells should be classified as prokaryotic cells? A.1 & 2B.1 & 3C.2 & 4D.3 & 4

7 Each of the illustrations below shows either a prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell. A.1 & 2 Both 1 & 2 have many organelles inside, including a nucleus. Eukaryotes have a nucleus!!!

8 The illustration below shows an organelle from a cell. Which of the following organisms in the pond ecosystem uses this organelle to produce food? A.frog B.mayfly C.pickerel D.willow

9 The illustration below shows an organelle from a cell. Which of the following organisms in the pond ecosystem uses this organelle to produce food? D.willow Chloroplast  This question also had a picture that shows all the organisms named above. The organelle is a chloroplast that produces food through photosynthesis. The willow is the only plant

10 Which of the following organisms is a prokaryote? A.Agaricus arvensis, horse mushroom B.Rhizopus stolonifer, bread mold fungus C.Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker’s yeast D.Thiopedia rosea, purple sulfur bacterium

11 Which of the following organisms is a prokaryote? D.Thiopedia rosea, purple sulfur bacterium Bacteria are the only organisms that are prokaryotes.

12 Which of the following matches a cell organelle with its function? A.chloroplast—movement B.nucleus—cell regulation C.vacuole—energy production D.mitochondrion—photosynthesis

13 Which of the following matches a cell organelle with its function? B.nucleus—cell regulation This just comes from memorizing the jobs of organelles. “Regulation” means control, and that’s what the nucleus does. It is also helpful to cross off the ones you are sure do not match (chloroplast- movement) so you may be able to find the correct one

14 Which of the following diagrams shows a prokaryotic cell? A. B. C. D.

15 Which of the following diagrams shows a prokaryotic cell? A.Tricky one, but virus not cell B.Chloroplast = plants = eukaryote C.Many cell parts = eukaryote D.DNA is not in a Nucleus = prokaryote Again, use crossing out if not sure. “A” and “D” are left, but “A” is a virus, not a cell; D is correct

16 In pure water, a red blood cell from an animal will swell and burst, but a leaf cell from a plant will not. Which structure in the leaf cell is responsible for this difference? A.cell membrane B.cell wall C.mitochondrion D.nucleus

17 In pure water, a red blood cell from an animal will swell and burst, but a leaf cell from a plant will not. Which structure in the leaf cell is responsible for this difference? B.cell wall This is a question about plant and animal cell differences, Plants have a cell wall, animals do not. The other 3 options are in both (cell membrane, mitochondria and nucleus)

18 Prokaryotes are structurally simple organisms that have existed for over two billion years. Which of the following are prokaryotes? A.bacteria B.fungi C.plants D.protists

19 Prokaryotes are structurally simple organisms that have existed for over two billion years. Which of the following are prokaryotes? A.bacteria ONLY Bacteria are prokaryotes!!

20 A student is looking at a picture of a cell taken through a microscope. The presence of which of the following would indicate that the cell is eukaryotic? A.cytoplasm B.DNA C.nucleus D.plasma membrane

21 A student is looking at a picture of a cell taken through a microscope. The presence of which of the following would indicate that the cell is eukaryotic? C.nucleus Eukaryote cells have a nucleus!!!!!

22 Which of the following describes plant cells but not animal cells? A.The nucleus contains the chromosomes. B.The ribosomes assist in protein synthesis. C.Plastids store starch made during photosynthesis. D.Mitochondria produce energy through respiration.

23 Which of the following describes plant cells but not animal cells? C.Plastids store starch made during photosynthesis. All four answers are correct for both and animals, but this question wants to know what is different. Only plants do photosynthesis (in chloroplasts organelle)

24 If a cell’s lysosomes were damaged, which of the following would most likely occur? A.The cell would produce more proteins than it needs. B.The cell would have chloroplasts that appear yellow rather than green. C.The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm. D.The cell would be less able to regulate the amount of fluid in its cytoplasm.

25 If a cell’s lysosomes were damaged, which of the following would most likely occur? C.The cell would be less able to break down molecules in its cytoplasm. Lysosomes are full of enzymes that break down waste material and cells. This is just a question of organelle and its function

26 A diagram of a plant cell is shown below. Which number identifies the organelle that functions to store water and dissolved salts? A.1 B.2 C.3 D.4

27 A diagram of a plant cell is shown below. Which number identifies the organelle that functions to store water and dissolved salts? C.3 Just imagine, if you Wanted to “store” Anything you would Want to have the Biggest space possible!

28 Trichodina is a eukaryotic organism that attaches itself to fish and eats bacteria. Which of the following distinguishes Trichodina from all prokaryotes? A.Trichodina is unicellular. B.Trichodina has a nucleus. C.Trichodina has cytoplasm. D.Trichodina is heterotrophic.

29 Trichodina is a eukaryotic organism that attaches itself to fish and eats bacteria. Which of the following distinguishes Trichodina from all prokaryotes? B.Trichodina has a nucleus. This question also has a very confusing picture that comes with it, but you do not need it. You recognize the words eukaryote and prokaryote and know Eukaryotes have a nucleus, prokaryotes do not.

30 In a cell, which of the following organelles most likely contains digestive enzymes? A.centriole B.chloroplast C.lysosome D.ribosome

31 In a cell, which of the following organelles most likely contains digestive enzymes? C.lysosome Function of the lysosome is to digest waste with enzymes!

32 In which of the following ways does a bacterial cell differ from an animal cell? A.A bacterial cell is much larger than an animal cell. B.A bacterial cell has more mitochondria than an animal cell. C.A bacterial cell has RNA for its genetic material, whereas an animal cell does not. D.A bacterial cell does not have membrane-bound organelles, whereas an animal cell does.

33 In which of the following ways does a bacterial cell differ from an animal cell? D.A bacterial cell does not have membrane-bound organelles, whereas an animal cell does. You know bacteria are prokaryotes, which means no nucleus, but the also have very few other organelles either, they are much more simple than animal (or any eukaryote) cell.

34 Scientists believe that the first organisms that appeared on Earth were prokaryotic. Which of the following best represents what the cell structure of these organisms may have looked like? A.B C.D.

35 Scientists believe that the first organisms that appeared on Earth were prokaryotic. Which of the following best represents what the cell structure of these organisms may have looked like? X.X. X.D. The most simple

36 The illustrations below represent two different cells. Which of the following statements best identifies these two cells? A.Cell X is a prokaryotic cell and Y is a eukaryotic cell. B.Cell X is an archae cell and Y is a eubacterial cell. C.Cell X is a red blood cell and cell Y is a muscle cell. D.Cell X is a plant cell and cell Y is an animal cell.

37 The illustrations below represent two different cells. Which of the following statements best identifies these two cells? A.Cell X is a prokaryotic cell and cell Y is a eukaryotic cell. Two main types of cells, prokaryote and eukaryote (Simple - X) (Complex-Y)

38 Which of the following statements correctly matches a cell part with its function? A.The cell membrane packages lipids for export. B.The mitochondria perform photosynthesis. C.The lysosome digests molecules. D.The nucleus produces energy.

39 Which of the following statements correctly matches a cell part with its function? C.The lysosome digests molecules. AGAIN, the answer was “lysosomes”. Not sure why they have asked about this one organelle so much. Your best bet is to make flashcards for these organelles or use the Quizlets sites to continue practicing them, you never know which ones will be asked!


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