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. Chapter 10 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes 10/1/11MDufilho1.

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Presentation on theme: ". Chapter 10 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes 10/1/11MDufilho1."— Presentation transcript:

1 . Chapter 10 Characterizing and Classifying Prokaryotes 10/1/11MDufilho1

2 General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Prokaryotes –Most diverse group of cellular microbes –Habitats –From Antarctic glaciers to thermal hot springs –From colons of animals to cytoplasm of other prokaryotes –From distilled water to supersaturated brine –From disinfectant solutions to basalt rocks –Only a few capable of colonizing humans and causing disease 10/1/11MDufilho2

3 Figure 11.1 Typical prokaryotic morphologies Coccus Coccobacillus Bacillus Vibrio Spirillum Spirochete Pleomorphic 10/1/11MDufilho3

4 General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Arrangement of Prokaryotic Cells –Result from two aspects of division during binary fission –Planes in which cells divide –Separation of daughter cells © 2012 Pearson Education Inc.

5 Figure 11.6 Arrangements of cocci-overview

6 Figure 11.7 Arrangements of bacilli-overview

7 General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Reproduction of Prokaryotic Cells –All reproduce asexually –Three main methods –Binary fission (most common) –Snapping division –Budding 10/1/11MDufilho7

8 Figure 11.2 Binary fission Cell replicates its DNA. Nucleoid Cell wall Cytoplasmic membrane Replicated DNA The cytoplasmic membrane elongates, separating DNA molecules. Cross wall forms; membrane invaginates. Cross wall forms completely. Daughter cells may separate. 10/1/11MDufilho8

9 Figure 11.3 Snapping division-overview 10/1/11MDufilho9

10 Figure 11.4 Actinomycetes spores Spores 10/1/11MDufilho10

11 Figure 11.5 Budding DNA is replicated One daughter DNA molecule is moved into bud Young bud Daughter cell 10/1/11MDufilho11

12 Figure 11.6 Arrangements of cocci-overview 10/1/11MDufilho12

13 Figure 11.7 Arrangements of bacilli-overview 10/1/11MDufilho13

14 General Characteristics of Prokaryotic Organisms Endospores –Produced by Gram-positive Bacillus and Clostridium –Each vegetative cell transforms into one endospore –Each endospore germinates to form one vegetative cell –Defensive strategy against unfavorable conditions –Concern to food processors, health care professionals, and governments 10/1/11MDufilho14

15 Figure 11.8 Locations of endospores-overview 10/1/11MDufilho15

16 Modern Prokaryotic Classification Currently based on genetic relatedness of rRNA sequences Three domains –Archaea –Bacteria –Eukarya. 10/1/11MDufilho16

17 Figure 11.9 Prokaryotic taxonomy PHYLUM CHLOROFLEXI (green nonsulfur) Thermophilic bacteria PHYLUM DEINOCOCCUS-THERMUS Deeply branching bacteria PHYLUM AQUIFICAE GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA PHYLUM PROTEOBACTERIA Rickettsias (  ) Rhodospirilla (  ) (purple nonsulfur) Rhizobium (  ) Nitrifying (  ) Myzobacteria (  ) Campylobacteria (  ) Pseudomonads (  ) PHYLUM CHLOROBI (green sulfur) Neisserias (  ) PHYLUM BACTEROIDETES PHYLUM FIBROBACTERES PHYLUM CHLAMYDIAE PHYLUM SPIROCHAETES PHYLUM PLANCTOMYCETES PHYLUM CYANOBACTERIA BACTERIA ARCHAEA PHYLUM FUSOBACTERIAPHYLUM FIRMICUTES Clostridia Mycoplasmas Bacilli-Lactobacilli Arthrobacter Streptomyces Atopobium Corynebacterium Mycobacterium Nocardia PHYLUM ACTINOBACTERIA GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA High G+C Gram-positive PHYLUM KORARCHAEOTA PHYLUM EURYARCHAEOTA PHYLUM CRENARCHAEOTA Thermophilic archaea Methanogens Halophiles 10/1/11MDufilho17


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