2 TAKSObjective 2 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of living systems and the environment.
3 TEKS Science ConceptsB4 - The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to:(A) identify the parts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellsB3 - The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:(F) research and describe the history of biology and contributions of scientists.
4 Engage: Cell History Cytology- study of cells 1665 English Scientist Robert HookeUsed a microscope to examine cork (plant)Hooke called what he saw "Cells"
5 Cell History Robert Brown Matthias Schleiden Theodor Schwann discovered the nucleus in 1833.Matthias SchleidenGerman Botanist Matthias Schleiden1838ALL PLANTS "ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS".Theodor SchwannAlso in 1838,discovered that animals were made of cells
6 Cell History Rudolf Virchow 1855, German Physician" THAT CELLS ONLY COME FROM OTHER CELLS".His statement debunked "Theory of Spontaneous Generation"
7 Cell TheoryThe COMBINED work of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow make up the modern CELL THEORY.
8 The Cell Theory states that: 1. All living things are composed of a cell or cells.2. Cells are the basic unit of life.3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
9 Explore Plant vs. Animal Lab You will observe different types of plant and animal cells under the microscope and record your observations.Gel Cells for DiffusionYou will build a model of a cell to understand why cells when they reach a certain size stop growing.Edible Model CellsUsing your textbook and other resources, you will make a model of a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell using gelatin and other edible materials. The gelatin will represent the cell membrane/cytoplasm and other edible components will be representative of the cellular organelles.
10 Explain: Cell Diversity Cells within the same organism show Enormous Diversity in:SizeShapeInternal Organization
11 1. Cell SizeFemale Egg - largest cell in the human body; seen without the aid of a microscopeMost cells are visible only with a microscope.
12 Cells are small for 2 Reasons Limited in size by the RATIO between their Outer Surface Area and Their Volume. A small cell has more SURFACE AREA than a large cell for a GIVEN VOLUME OF CYTOPLASM. This is important because the nutrients, oxygen, and other materials a cell requires must enter through it surface. As a cell grows larger at some point its surface area becomes too Small to allow these materials to enter the cell quickly enough to meet the cell's need.
13 Cells are Small Reason 2: THE CELL'S NUCLEUS (THE BRAIN) CAN ONLY CONTROL A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF LIVING, ACTIVE CYTOPLASM.
14 2. Cell Shape Diversity of form reflects a diversity of function. THE SHAPE OF A CELL DEPENDS ON ITS FUNCTION.
22 Internal Organization Cells contain ORGANELLES.Cell Components that PERFORMS SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS FOR THE CELL.
23 Cellular Organelles The Plasma membrane The boundary of the cell. Composed of three distinct layers.Two layers of fat and one layer of protein.
24 The Nucleus Brain of Cell Bordered by a porous membrane - nuclear envelope.Contains thin fibers of DNA and protein called Chromatin.Rod Shaped ChromosomesContains a small round nucleolusproduces ribosomal RNA which makes ribosomes.
25 Ribosomes Small non-membrane bound organelles. Contain two sub units Site of protein synthesis.Protein factory of the cellEither free floating or attached to the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
26 Endoplasmic Reticulum Complex network of transport channels.Two types:Smooth- ribosome free and functions in poison detoxification.Rough - contains ribosomes and releases newly made protein from the cell.
27 Golgi ApparatusA series of flattened sacs that modifies, packages, stores, and transports materials out of the cell.Works with the ribosomes and Endoplasmic Reticulum.
28 Lysosomes Recycling Center Recycle cellular debrisMembrane bound organelle containing a variety of enzymes.Internal pH is 5.Help digest food particles inside or out side the cell.
29 Centrioles Found only in animal cells Paired organelles found together near the nucleus, at right angles to each other.Role in building cilia and flagellaPlay a role in cellular reproduction
31 Cytoskeleton Framework of the cell Contains small microfilaments and larger microtubules.They support the cell, giving it its shape and help with the movement of its organelles.
32 Mitochondrion Double Membranous It’s the size of a bacterium Contains its own DNA; mDNAProduces high energy compound ATP
33 The Chloroplast Double membrane Center section contains grana Thylakoid (coins) make up the grana.Stroma - gel-like material surrounding granaFound in plants and algae.
34 The VacuoleSacs that help in food digestion or helping the cell maintain its water balance.Found mostly in plants and protists.
35 Cell WallExtra structure surrounding its plasma membrane in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria.Cellulose – PlantsChitin – FungiPeptidoglycan - Bacteria
36 Review A. The Discovery of the Cell 1.Robert Hooke 2.The Cell Theory Section 7-1ReviewA. The Discovery of the Cell1.Robert Hooke2.The Cell TheoryB. Exploring Cell Diversity1. Size2. Shape3. Internal OrganizationC. Two types of cells1. Prokaryote2. Eukaryote
37 Cell Types (Review) Eukaryotic 1. Contains a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles.2. Rod shaped chromosomes3. Found in all kingdoms except the Eubacteria and ArchaebacteriaProkaryoticDoes not contain a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles.Circular chromosomeFound only in the Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Kingdoms
38 Elaborate Modeling the Animal Cell You will create a cellular game. By following the procedure, you will create a closed circuit using a battery, wires, paper spreaders, and an LED light that will turn on when they match up the organelle with its correct function
39 EvaluateThe students will create an edible cell model and correctly identify the location and function of at least 8 organelles.The students will correctly match at least 10 organelles with their function, using the animal and plant cell model.The students will draw and label both a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. Pass/FailThe students will complete a Venn diagram comparing both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells showing at least two differences.