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Simulation of Prokaryotic Genetic Circuits Jonny Wells and Jimmy Bai.

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Presentation on theme: "Simulation of Prokaryotic Genetic Circuits Jonny Wells and Jimmy Bai."— Presentation transcript:

1 Simulation of Prokaryotic Genetic Circuits Jonny Wells and Jimmy Bai

2 Overview Organization of Genetic Regulatory Circuits Simulations of Cellular Regulation Modelling

3 Regulatory circuits Hierarchical organization Regulons – control groups of operons Global regulons – multiple pathway regulation (e.g. σ 32 ) Often neglected in simulations However is needed in some circumstances (e.g. 2 σ factors competing)

4 Regulatory feedback Where output influences input signals Autoregulatory feedback loops In E.coli, over 100 σ 70 promoters 68% autoregulating 13% autoactivating Specialized enzymes often under regulatory control


6 Genetic Cascade

7 Regulatory mechanisms

8 Intergrating environmental signals Eg. Chemotactic responses Attractant or repellent molecules bind directly to specialized receptors leading to phosphorylation cascade Pulses of agents matched with behavioural changes Mutants shown to have altered enzymatic activity

9 Cell cycle models Genetic regulation coupling to cell cycle Modelling of biochemical reactions that support oscillations p 34 activation, p 34 /cyclin interactions and cyclin degradation suggested However shown to be far more elaborate

10 Developmental Switches Different physiological states require switching mechanisms Cell-density-dependent gene expression Quorum-sensing Higher density = higher pheromone conc. Lysis/Lysogeny determination

11 Modelling Promoter control Models Stochastic processes in regulatory kinetics Modelling macromolecular complexes Uncertainty in intracellular environment and reaction rates

12 Promoter control Models Boolean threshold logic paradigm Generalised threshold model Modelled as positive and negative feedback loops Assumptions of Boolean network

13 Limitation of Boolean Network Poor approximation

14 Other control mechanism Besides promoter activation control Termination sites activation control Many posttranscriptional regulations Many protein-mediated controls Proteolysis Phosphorylation Methylation

15 Stochastic Process Model macroscopic kinetics of chemical reactions using ordinary differential equation Difficult to achieve in genetic reaction due to low concentration and slow reaction rates Gillespie algorithm – calculating the probabilistic outcome of each discrete chemical event State vector

16 Stochastic Process Random burst of numbers of protein Timing uncertainty Stronger promoter Higher gene dosage Lower signal threshold

17 Stochastic Process Different Activation time due to variation of the concentration

18 Modelling macromolecular complex Realistic modelling -->central challenge Genetic network mechanism is more complicated Dynamic behaviour

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