6 Differences Between Cell Types Prokaryotic CellEukaryotic CellSingle circular chromosomeMultiple linear chromosomesChromosome found in a cytoplasmic region called the nucleoid.Chromosomes found in a membrane-bound nucleus.No internal membranesSome infolded plasma membraneExtensive network of internal membranes
7 Common Components and Cellular Organization Plasma Membraneboundary surrounding the cellGenetic material: DNAlocated in a membrane-bound nucleus for eukaryotic cellsCytoplasmSemi-fluid matrix containing enzymes and organelles (enzyme = biological catalyst)Cytoskeletonnetwork of filaments and tubules in cytoplasm that maintains cell shape, allows movement
8 Features of Prokaryotic Cells All prokaryotic cells containStructureFunctionPlasma MembraneRegulates flow of substances into and out of cellNucleoidCytoplasmic region containing genetic materialCytoplasmCytosol: fluidRibosomesEnzymes
9 Features of Prokaryotic Cells Other possible prokaryotic structuresStructureFunctionCell WallSupports cellMaintains shapeCapsuleProtects from dryingProtects against white blood cellsInfolded Plasma MembranesMetabolismCell division
10 Features of Prokaryotic Cells Other possible prokaryotic structuresStructureFunctionBacterial FlagellumMovementPlasmidSmall circular DNAReplicates independently
11 Applying Your Knowledge Cell WallFlagellumCapsulePlasmidNucleoidIn bacterial cellswhere is the genetic material located?which one is used for movement?which one provides structural support for the cell?
12 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)Plasma Membrane1. Regulates passage of materials into and out of cell2. Cell-Cell Recognition
13 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)Cell Wall(protists, fungi, plants)Controls cell shape, protects, supports
14 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)NucleusCarrier of genetic materialDNA + protein = chromatin2. Governs cell activities3. Directs cell reproductionSurrounded by Membrane = nuclear envelopeContains nucleolus—produces ribosomes which synthesize proteins
15 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features SERRERFunctions of Eukaryotic Cell FeaturesStructureFunction(s)Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)Associated ribosomes produce proteinsPrepares proteins for exportSmooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)Lipid SynthesisDrug detoxificationTransport of proteins from RER
16 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)Golgi ApparatusCollects, modifies, packages and distributes proteins and lipids from ER
17 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)LysosomeContains digestive enzymes to digest food in protists or destroy aging organelles
18 Endomembrane System Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumVesicleGolgi ApparatusLysosomeVesicleVesiclePlasmaMembrane
19 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunctionPeroxisomeRemoves harmful oxidants from cells
20 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunctionMitochondrionCaptures energy from organic molecules, producing ATP
21 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunctionChloroplast (protists, plants)Photosynthesis: Uses light energy to produce organic molecules
22 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)CytoskeletonMaintains cell shapeAnchors organelles and proteinsAllows for organelle movement and cellular movement in some cell types
23 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunctionCentrioleGives rise to basal bodies that produce cilia or flagella
24 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)VacuoleCentral vacuole (plants) stores waste, maintains turgidity.Contractile vacuole (protists) maintains water balance.Food vacuole (protists) fuses with lysosome for digestion.
25 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s)Cilia and FlagellaMove substances across cell surface in lungs, fallopian tubesCell movement in sperm, protists
26 Applying Your Knowledge CiliumRough ERGolgi apparatusSmooth ERLysosomeWhich organelle produces proteins that will be exported from the cell?Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?Which site acts as a protein packaging and distribution center?
27 Thought Questions What are similarities for a. eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?b. animal and plant cells?2. What are differences between
28 Analogy If the cell were a factory the ____________________ would be (name a cell component)a _____________________________. (name a part of a factory)
29 Part of Cell Part of Factory Capsule Security Gate Cell Wall Outer Fence around the factoryChloroplastSolar PanelCytoskeletonMoving Belt where items are inspectedSteel Support, Interior WallsCilia/FlagellaConveyor Belt, Elevator/EscalatorEnzymeWorker; Assemblage MachineryGolgi ComplexDistribution/Packaging DepartmentMailroomMitochondrionGenerator, Engine Room, Power SourceNucleoidStorage of pre-production materialNucleusSupervisor’s Office, BossCorporate Office, Central OperationsPlasma MembraneLoading/Unloading Dock, Inner Wall, DoorRibosomesAssembly Line TrackRERProduction LineSERShipping DockVacuoleStorage Area
30 Cellular Interactions Signal Transduction: passing a signal from the cell surface to the interiorFirst messenger binds to Cell Surface ReceptorReceptor signals nearby Regulator ProteinRegulator activates nearby enzymeEnzyme catalyzes formation of Second MessengerSecond Messenger initiates Cellular Response
31 Cellular Interactions Cell Adhesion: joining of cells controlled by proteins called Cellular Adhesion Molecules (CAMS)important inInflammatory ResponsePlacenta FormationLearning and MemoryLack of cell adhesion is implicated in cancer and arthritis.