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CELLS Structure and Function Cell = smallest unit of life.

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Presentation on theme: "CELLS Structure and Function Cell = smallest unit of life."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELLS Structure and Function Cell = smallest unit of life

2 Two Major Cell Types Cell Type Example ProkaryoticBacteria EukaryoticProtistsFungiPlantsAnimals

3 Prokaryotic Cell

4 Eukaryotic Cell (protist, animal)

5 Eukaryotic Cell (plant)

6 Differences Between Cell Types Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Single circular chromosome Multiple linear chromosomes Chromosome found in a cytoplasmic region called the nucleoid. Chromosomes found in a membrane- bound nucleus. No internal membranes Some infolded plasma membrane Extensive network of internal membranes

7 Common Components and Cellular Organization Plasma MembranePlasma Membrane – boundary surrounding the cell Genetic material: DNAGenetic material: DNA –located in a membrane-bound nucleus for eukaryotic cells CytoplasmCytoplasm –Semi-fluid matrix containing enzymes and organelles (enzyme = biological catalyst) CytoskeletonCytoskeleton –network of filaments and tubules in cytoplasm that maintains cell shape, allows movement

8 Features of Prokaryotic Cells All prokaryotic cells contain StructureFunction Plasma Membrane Regulates flow of substances into and out of cell Nucleoid Cytoplasmic region containing genetic material Cytoplasm Cytosol: fluid RibosomesEnzymes

9 Features of Prokaryotic Cells Other possible prokaryotic structures StructureFunction Cell Wall Supports cell Maintains shape Capsule Protects from drying Protects against white blood cells Infolded Plasma Membranes Metabolism Cell division

10 Features of Prokaryotic Cells Other possible prokaryotic structures StructureFunction Bacterial Flagellum Movement Plasmid Plasmid Small circular DNA Replicates independently

11 Applying Your Knowledge In bacterial cells where is the genetic material located?where is the genetic material located? which one is used for movement?which one is used for movement? which one provides structural support for the cell?which one provides structural support for the cell? 1. Cell Wall 2. Flagellum 3. Capsule 4. Plasmid 5. Nucleoid

12 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Plasma Membrane 1. Regulates passage of materials into and out of cell 2. Cell-Cell Recognition

13 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Cell Wall (protists, fungi, plants) 1.Controls cell shape, protects, supports

14 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Nucleus Nucleus 1.Carrier of genetic material DNA + protein = chromatin DNA + protein = chromatin 2. Governs cell activities 3. Directs cell reproduction 4.Surrounded by Membrane = nuclear envelope 5.Contains nucleolus— produces ribosomes which synthesize proteins

15 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) 1.Associated ribosomes produce proteins 2.Prepares proteins for export Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) 1.Lipid Synthesis 2.Drug detoxification 3.Transport of proteins from RER RER SER

16 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Golgi Apparatus Collects, modifies, packages and distributes proteins and lipids from ER

17 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Lysosome Contains digestive enzymes to digest food in protists or destroy aging organelles

18 Endomembrane System Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Vesicle Golgi Apparatus Vesicle Lysosome Vesicle PlasmaMembrane

19 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction Peroxisome Removes harmful oxidants from cells Removes harmful oxidants from cells

20 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction Mitochondrion Captures energy from organic molecules, producing ATP

21 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction Chloroplast (protists, plants) Photosynthesis: Uses light energy to produce organic molecules

22 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Cytoskeleton 1.Maintains cell shape 2.Anchors organelles and proteins 3.Allows for organelle movement and cellular movement in some cell types

23 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction Centriole Gives rise to basal bodies that produce cilia or flagella

24 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Vacuole 1.Central vacuole (plants) stores waste, maintains turgidity. 2.Contractile vacuole (protists) maintains water balance. 3.Food vacuole (protists) fuses with lysosome for digestion.

25 Functions of Eukaryotic Cell Features StructureFunction(s) Cilia and Flagella 1.Move substances across cell surface in lungs, fallopian tubes 2.Cell movement in sperm, protists

26 Applying Your Knowledge A.Which organelle produces proteins that will be exported from the cell? B.Which organelle contains digestive enzymes? C.Which site acts as a protein packaging and distribution center? 1. Cilium 2. Rough ER 3. Golgi apparatus 4. Smooth ER 5. Lysosome

27 Thought Questions 1.What are similarities for a. eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? b. animal and plant cells? 2. What are differences between a. eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? b. animal and plant cells?

28 Analogy If the cell were a factory the ____________________ would be (name a cell component) (name a cell component) a _____________________________. (name a part of a factory)

29 Part of Cell Part of Factory Capsule Security Gate Cell Wall Outer Fence around the factory Chloroplast Solar Panel Cytoskeleton Moving Belt where items are inspected Steel Support, Interior Walls Cilia/Flagella Conveyor Belt, Elevator/Escalator Enzyme Worker; Assemblage Machinery Golgi Complex Distribution/Packaging Department Mailroom Mitochondrion Generator, Engine Room, Power Source Nucleoid Storage of pre-production material Nucleus Supervisor’s Office, Boss Corporate Office, Central Operations Plasma Membrane Loading/Unloading Dock, Inner Wall, Door Ribosomes Assembly Line Track RER Production Line SER Shipping Dock Vacuole Storage Area

30 Cellular Interactions  Signal Transduction: passing a signal from the cell surface to the interior  First messenger binds to Cell Surface Receptor  Receptor signals nearby Regulator Protein  Regulator activates nearby enzyme  Enzyme catalyzes formation of Second Messenger  Second Messenger initiates Cellular Response

31 Cellular Interactions  Cell Adhesion: joining of cells controlled by proteins called Cellular Adhesion Molecules (CAMS) important in important in  Inflammatory Response  Placenta Formation  Learning and Memory Lack of cell adhesion is implicated in cancer and arthritis. Lack of cell adhesion is implicated in cancer and arthritis.


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