Presentation on theme: "Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966). NEXT The civil rights movement develops and brings about."— Presentation transcript:
Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966). NEXT The civil rights movement develops and brings about changes in American society. The Civil Rights Era, 1954–1975
NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Origins of the Civil Rights Movement Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights The Equal Rights Struggle Expands The Civil Rights Era, 1954–1975
NEXT Changes after World War II help African Americans make progress in their struggle for equality. Section 1 Origins of the Civil Rights Movement
Postwar Changes Strengthen Protests NEXT More Americans see racism as evil, causing Hitler’s rise, Holocaust 1 SECTION After fighting for freedom, blacks want share of it in the U.S. Origins of the Civil Rights Movement Blacks make more money, move into cities for work Chart
NEXT 1 SECTION Plessy v. Ferguson—“separate but equal” doctrine established (1896) Brown II gives segregated schools more time to desegregate Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) rules that: -segregation has no place in public education NAACP counsel Thurgood Marshall challenges segregation laws Brown Overturns Plessy Most white-controlled schools resist segregation Map
NEXT 1 SECTION Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to follow segregation rules on bus 13-month boycott, leaders endure death threats, bombings, jailings Baptist minister Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., encourages boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott Continued... Montgomery bus boycott—blacks protest Parks’s arrest, trial by: -refusing to ride the buses in Montgomery, Alabama Nonviolent boycott gains national media attention Image
continued Montgomery Bus Boycott NEXT 1 SECTION Supreme Court rules Montgomery bus segregation law unconstitutional Boycott has several important results: -ends segregation on Montgomery buses -leads to founding of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) -makes Dr. King a very prominent civil rights leader
Massive Resistance NEXT 1 SECTION More than 80 percent of Southern whites oppose school desegregation Ku Klux Klan use violence to threaten blacks pursuing civil rights Segregationists fight African Americans, civil rights organizations White opposition to desegregation known as massive resistance White Citizens Councils organize to prevent desegregation, effective Image
Showdown in Little Rock 1 SECTION Little Rock school board makes plans to integrate Central High School 9th student, Elizabeth Eckford, tries to enter despite hostile mob 8 of 9 black students are turned away from school by National Guard Segregationists, Arkansas governor Orval Faubus blocks integration Escorted by U.S. military, black students enter Central High School Eckford is escorted away, Faubus refuses integration for 3 weeks NEXT Image
Sit-Ins Energize the Movement NEXT 1 SECTION 4 black college students do sit-in to desegregate lunch counter Segregationists abuse protestors, some protestors jailed, replaced Students sit at counter for 45 minutes, come back with more protesters Sit-in—protest, people sit, refuse to move until demands are met Sit-ins bring about Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Sit-ins effective, force many lunch counters to serve African Americans Image
NEXT The civil rights movement leads to the end of legal segregation. Section 2 Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights
Kennedy and Civil Rights NEXT 2 SECTION Senator John F. Kennedy Democratic candidate for president (1960) Gains African-American support Kennedy helps arrange release of Martin Luther King, Jr., from jail Vice-president Richard Nixon Republican candidate Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights Continued... Kennedy wins election, faces Congress reluctant to act on civil rights
NEXT 2 SECTION Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) plans Freedom Rides to: -desegregate interstate buses continued Kennedy and Civil Rights Segregationists attack riders, federal marshals protect riders U.S. government issues order integrating interstate bus facilities Image
Protests in Birmingham NEXT 2 SECTION African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama, want to: -integrate public facilities -gain better job, housing opportunities Police use dogs, firehoses on marchers, shown on TV, public horrified Start nonviolent protest, Dr. King joins protestors, is arrested Birmingham white leaders agree to: -desegregate lunch counters -remove segregation signs -employ more African Americans Image
The March on Washington NEXT 2 SECTION March on Washington—demonstration, 250,000 march to Lincoln Memorial President Kennedy promises support Martin Luther King delivers “I Have a Dream” speech Takes place on August 28, 1963; unites civil rights groups Image
New Civil Rights Laws 2 SECTION President Kennedy is assassinated on November 22, 1963 Acts quickly on civil rights, pushes the Civil Rights Act of 1964: -bans segregation in public places -creates commission to stop job discrimination NEXT U.S. mourns slain leader, factories, businesses close Vice-president Lyndon Johnson becomes president Chart
Fighting for Voting Rights NEXT 2 SECTION Civil Rights Act of 1964 bars different black, white voting standards Martin Luther King, Jr., SCLC have voter registration protest march Freedom Summer—voter registration drive for Southern blacks 24th Amendment bans poll tax, still difficult for blacks in South vote State troopers attack marchers President Johnson send U.S. troops to protect marchers Continued...
continued Fighting for Voting Rights NEXT 2 SECTION President Johnson signs Voting Rights Act into law (1965): -bans literacy test, laws stopping blacks from registering to vote -sends federal officials to register voters Percentage of blacks registered to vote in Selma increases sharply Map
Johnson and the Great Society 2 SECTION President Johnson proposes programs called Great Society, provides: -programs to help disenfranchised, poor, elderly, women -laws to promote education, end discrimination, protect environment Many programs, like Medicare, Medicaid, still exist today NEXT Elementary and Secondary School Act provides U.S. funds for education Laws passed to protect environment, endangered species, wilderness Image
Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement 2 SECTION Civil rights groups disagree, some are nonviolent, others aggressive King, SCLC protest discrimination in Chicago, have little effect Continued... NEXT Frustration about lack of opportunities, political power leads to riots Martin Luther King, Jr., assassinated (April 4, 1968) Nation mourns, African Americans riot across the U.S.
NEXT 2 SECTION Some blacks reject nonviolence, white cooperation SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael fights racism, all-black organization continued Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement Nation of Islam urges blacks to separate from whites Popular member Malcolm X rejects separatist ideas by mid-1960s Assassinated by Nation of Islam in 1965 Image
NEXT The African-American struggle for equality inspires other groups to fight for equality. Section 3 The Equal Rights Struggle Expands
Mexican Americans Organize NEXT César Chávez starts farm workers union, gains higher wages, benefits 3 SECTION Mexican Americans form La Raza Unida (1970) works to: -get better jobs, pay, education, housing for Mexican Americans -elect Mexican Americans to public office The Equal Rights Struggle Expands Mexican American students organize, demand reforms in school system Stage walkout, arrested, schools meet protestors, make reforms Image
Hispanic Diversity 3 SECTION Hispanics trace roots to Spanish-speaking Latin American countries Differences make it difficult for Hispanic Americans to unify politically Come from different countries, cultures, often have little in common Refer to themselves as Latinos NEXT
Native Americans Unite 3 SECTION In Declaration of Indian Purpose (1961) Native Americans demand: -right to choose own way of life -responsibility of preserving precious heritage National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) leads protests of policy Continued... NEXT “Termination policy” leads to decline of Native American cultures U.S. government changes policy, inspires Native Americans, gain rights
continued Native Americans Unite NEXT 3 SECTION American Indian Movement (AIM) demands sovereign rights Native Americans win back some of their lands Indian Self-Determination Act of 1975, tribal governments get: -more control over social programs, law enforcement, education
The Women’s Movement 3 SECTION 1960s, women face discrimination in workplace, limited legal rights National Organization for Women (NOW), good jobs, equal pay for women Betty Friedan writes book about problems women face in society Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) in 1972 Continued... NEXT
3 SECTION Supporters say ERA will: -protect women against discrimination -help women achieve equality with men Civil Rights Act (1964), Higher Education Act (1972): -outlaw discrimination against women States do not ratify ERA continued The Women’s Movement Map
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