Presentation on theme: "1878-1881 The Town of Lincoln. Photo taken in 1880."— Presentation transcript:
The Town of Lincoln. Photo taken in 1880.
WORDS TO REMEMBER Lawlessness- disorder Amnesty- official pardon Ambushed- trap Proclamation- public statement Posse- group Indicted- charged Exterminate- destroy Forage- hunt or scavenge Immobilize- put out of action Vocabulary
KEY PLAYERS Lawrence G. Murphy Alexander A. McSween James J. Dolan John Henry Tunstall Pat Garrett General Lew Wallace Susan McSween Sheriff William Brady Colonel N.A.M. Dudley Regulators William H. Bonney (also know as) Billy the Kid
Much of Hollywood was taken with the saga of the Lincoln County War where characters like Lawrence Murphy, James Dolan, and Alexander McSween fought for political control of the county. LAWLESSNESS and ruthless pursuit of power led to the legend of William H. Bonney, also know as Billy the Kid. With the end of the Kid’s reign of terror also came the end of the outlaw days of the New Mexico Territory but prolonged statehood for New Mexico. Introduction Hollywood Fiction
What really happened in the Lincoln County War? The true story starts with the Santa Fe Ring. The Santa Fe Ring was a loose group of lawyers, newspaper owners, politicians, and businessmen determined to run the New Mexico Territory by controlling its land. Land is an important need to both farmers and ranchers. The Santa Fe Ring bought the biggest amount of land, at the time, around Lincoln called the Carrizozo Ranch, becoming part of the Lincoln County War. The Santa Fe Ring Lawrence Murphy, who belonged to the Santa Fe Ring, and James Dolan opened a store in Lincoln called The House in The House was a general store that sold, traded, or allowed customers to use credit to buy goods like flour, seeds, land, and sometimes land that didn’t belong to Murphy or Dolan. Judge Alexander McSween worked for Murphy and Dolan as a bill collector until Judge McSween began keeping some of the money he collected. While on a collection Judge McSween met John Henry Tunstall in Santa Fe and encouraged Tunstall to move to Lincoln. Taking Sides
In 1877 John Henry Tunstall purchased land and opened a store in Lincoln, which was competition for Murphy and Dolan’s store. In retaliation, Murphy and Dolan had Judge McSween arrested for keeping some of the money he collected. Two Wrongs Don’t Make A Right Judge Warren Bristol ordered Sheriff William Brady to obtain property from Judge McSween to pay for Judge McSween’s $ bail. Sheriff Brady believed Judge McSween and Tunstall were partners and began obtaining Tunstall’s property to pay Judge McSween’s bail. Brady sent a POSSE to take Tunstall’s cattle too. Tunstall was traveling with some of the men who worked for him when the POSSE reached him outside of Lincoln. This is where Tunstall was shot and died. One of the men traveling with Tunstall that day was William H. Bonney, who became Billy the Kid. Billy formed a group called the Regulators who wanted justice for their employers’ murder. Sheriff William Brady
In 1878 some of the Murphy-Dolan men were indicted for Tunstall’s murder. Murphy and Dolan began loosing money and had to close The House. Murphy died of an alcohol- related illness shortly after. Judge McSween was cleared of keeping some of the money he collected but had to hide in the hills surrounding Lincoln because other charges were brought against him. Judge McSween’s wife Susan remained in Lincoln allowing the Regulators to stay at her house to protect her. A Little Justice Murphy-Dolan Store, The House, built in 1874, became headquarters during Lincoln County War. After the store failed, the building became county courthouse and jail for 33 years. John Tunstall’s store, built in 1877, continued as a store for many years.
War The arrival of the Army gave the Murphy- Dolan side the upper hand because the Army would not help the McSween side unless Judge McSween surrendered. Murphy-Dolan men managed to set McSweens house on fire. Billy the Kid, who was leading the Regulators, ordered the women and children to leave the house. After the sun went down Billy and most of the Regulators sprinted from the burning house. Judge McSween was IMMOBILIZED and died at home. Residents of Lincoln called for help from Colonel N.A.M. Dudley who was the commanding officer at the near by Fort Stanton. Dudley sent one company of cavalry and one company of infantry (a grand total of thirty-five men) who arrived five days after the first bullet was fired. When Judge McSween returned to Lincoln he brought about forty Regulators determined to fight until the bitter end. Murphy-Dolan men positioned themselves in houses, the former Tunstall store, the Torreon watch tower, and the Worthy Hotel. The McSweens, Elizabeth Shield plus her five children, and about a dozen Regulators barricaded themselves in the McSween’s home. For four days both sides tried to EXTERMINATE the other. Murphy-Dolan Men
Billy and the Regulators were now on the run. Governor Lew Wallace issued a PROCLAMATION of general AMNESTY but the Regulators remained on the run, continuing to steal horses and rustle cattle. Billy’s former friend Pat Garrett won the office of Sheriff in Lincoln County. Garrett’s POSSE surrounded Billy the Kid in a FORAGE station called Stinking Springs. Billy surrendered. The newly arrived Santa Fe Railroad transported Billy from Las Vegas, New Mexico to Mesilla, New Mexico for trail. Billy was convicted and sentence to hang. Billy then was transported back to Lincoln to await execution. Once in Lincoln Billy escaped from jail. Billy rode a horse to Fort Sumner, New Mexico where he hid for two months. Late one night Billy went to visit a friend. There are many accusations as to what happened next. Some say Billy escaped and lived a long life in either Ramah, New Mexico or in Texas while others believe Garret AMBUSHED Billy, shot him, and Billy was buried in Fort Sumner. Either way Billy’s so-called reign of terror was over. Outlaws and Lawmen Billy the Kid
What happened to Susan McSween? Susan remarried, bought some land outside of Tularosa, used Tunstall’s cattle to start her herd, and managed Three Rivers Land and Cattle Company. Over the next two decades Susan’s business grew and she earned the title “Cattle Queen of New Mexico”. After moving to White Oaks, Susan died in 1931 of influenza. In the End
LINCOLN COUNTY REFERENCE MAP
Works Cited Images Billy the Kid Reward Poster FanpopWeb. 8 Oct Historic Marker. N.d. Lincoln WarWeb. 8 Oct John Tunstall's Store About Billy the KidWeb. 16 Oct Lincoln County Reference Map Ruidoso New Mexico - Getting Here, Ruidoso. Web. 13 Oct LINCOLN COUNTY SHERIFF BADGE The Old West GalleryWeb. 10 Oct Sheriff William Brady Chronicle of the Old WestWeb. 9 Oct Susan McSween. N.d. AngelfireWeb. 14 Oct The Five-Day Battle. N.d. AngelfireWeb. 15 Oct The House On Walkabout In: Loncoln, New MexicoWeb. 11 Oct The Lincoln County Wars Fixed Bayonet Model Soldiers: The Lincoln County WarsWeb. 11 Oct
William H. Bonney o Billy The Kid Entre Penas y Gracias: Billy the KidWeb. 13 Oct Young Guns Movie Poster. N.d. PhotobucketWeb. 8 Oct Written Sources Etulain, Richard W. New Mexican Lives. 1st. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Print. Garrett, Pat F. The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid. 1st ed. 3. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, Print. Roberts, Calvin A., and Susan A. Roberts. New Mexico. 1st Rev.ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Print. Works Cited Continued