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Diversity Understanding Islam

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1 Diversity Understanding Islam
“Let them at least learn what is the religion they attack, before attacking it.” Blaise Pascal Mamdouh M. Salama Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

2 Some Quoted about Islam
"The extinction of race consciousness as between Muslims is one of the outstanding achievements of Islam, and in the contemporary world there is, as it happens, a crying need for the propagation of this Islamic virtue." ‑‑A.J. Toynbee, CIVILIZATION ON TRIAL, New York, 1948, p. 205. "Islam has a still further service to render to the cause of humanity. …it possesses a magnificent tradition of inter‑racial understanding and cooperation. No other society has such a record of success uniting in an equality of status, of opportunity, and of endeavours so many and so various races of mankind. . . Islam has still the power to reconcile apparently irreconcilable elements of race and tradition." ‑‑H.A.R. Gibb, WHITHER ISLAM, London, 1932, p. 379. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

3 Statistics Total population of Muslims worldwide is about 1.2 billion people Muslims come from around the Globe: Asia, Middle East, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Australia Less than 15% of the Muslims are Arabs. There are over 7 million Muslims in USA There are over 1,600 Mosques (Muslims’ place of worship) in USA Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

4 Outline Authentic sources of Islam Terminology & definitions
Basics of Islam The character of Islam Some principles of Islam Women in Islam Jihad Classification on Muslims Q&A Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

5 Understanding Islam Authentic Sources of Islam
The Quran: This is the most important source. To holy Quran includes the exact word of God which was revealed in the Arabic language to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) over the period of 23 years ( A.D.) through the Holy Spirit, the archangel Gabriel. (The Quran addresses mainly three topics: the nature of God, the unseen (e.g. creation, judgment, history, prophesies), and constitution and rules for individuals and society.) The Sunnah (hadeath): The authenticated actions and sayings of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). This source is very important because the Quran states the laws and the Prophet provides examples on how to apply these laws in our daily lives. (More than 300,000 Hadeath were attributed to the Prophet but 7,000 are considered authentic by many scholars and only 1906 are considered authentic by all scholars. This is the main factor for differences between Muslims.) Note: When reading the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet, in Arabic, one can easily recognize the dramatic difference in the linguistic style. Unfortunately, when you translate both of them to English this difference cannot be recognized. The Arabic language has 60,000 roots. The Quran only used 1,500 (I.e. 1/40) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

6 Allah The personal name of God -- Christians and Jews in the Middle East call God "Allah”. Allah is a word that has no gender and is not subject to plurality. This makes Allah an ideal word to describe the one genderless supreme being. "Verily, I am Allah. There is no god but Me, so serve me, and establish prayers for celebrating My praise" (20:14). "Say: He is Allah, the One. He is the Eternal, the Absolute. He has not fathered anyone, nor was He fathered. And there is nothing like him" (112). ( This leads to the conclusion that it is improper to attempt to describe the physical nature of Allah in terms of our knowledge. But, Allah is known by his 99 attributes that are listed in many verses.) Allah’s attributes: The Beneficent, The Merciful, The Holy, The Forgiver, The Avenger, The Creator, The Provider, The Just, The Truth, The Protector, The Eternal, The First, The Last, The Pardoner, The Originator, The Light, The Patient, The Bestower, The One, The Unique, The Lord of Majesty and Generosity, The Dignifier, The Abaser, The All Knowing, The appreciative, …. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

7 Islam The name of the religion -- The root of the word Islam means peace and submission. Islam means the religion that achieves peace through the trusting submission of God. In this essence, Islam was the mission of all prophets and was only universalized through Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). “Today I have perfected your religion for you, and completed my blessings toward you, and have chosen Islam for you as your religion" (5:3). Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

8 Muslims The followers of Islam
"Strive for Allah's sake, the way He should be striven for. He has chosen you and has not placed any constraint upon you concerning your religion which is the religion of your forefather Abraham. He has named you Muslims both previously and right now" (22:78). "When Jesus became conscious of his people's disbelief, he asked, `Who will be my supporters in the cause of Allah?' The disciples said, `We are your supporters in the cause of Allah, we believe in Allah, and you bear witness that we are Muslims" (3:52). "Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim, and he never associated other gods with Allah" (3:65-67). Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

9 Basics of Islam A man appeared before us and sat down by the prophet and said: "O Mohammad, tell me about Islam". The Prophet said: Islam is built on five: to testify that there is no God but Allah and Mohammad is His messenger, to perform the Salah (prayers), to pay the Zakat (Poor-due), to fast the month of Ramadan, and to make the pilgrimage to the Ka'bah (Holy Mosque in Mecca) if you can afford it". The man then asked tell about belief. The prophet said: "It is to believe in God, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Day of Judgment, and to believe in divine destiny both the good and the bad". The man said: "Then tell me about sincerity". The Prophet said: "It is to worship Allah as though you are seeing him, and while you do not see Him He sees you". Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

10 The Quran The the name of the Muslims’ Holy Book (literally means “the book to read”). Revealed over a period of 23 years ( A.D.). Was recorded during the life of the Prophet and was committed to memory by many. It contains 114 chapters, the smallest chapter contains 3 verses and the longest contains 286 verses. All chapters start with: “In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful” Author (of the Arabic text) "Allah bears witness that what He has sent it (the Quran) down to you, He has sent it with His (Own full) Knowledge and the angels bear witness: though Allah suffices as a Witness" (4:166). "Gabriel (the holy spirit) brings it (the Quran) down to your heart by Allah's command, a confirmation of what went before, and guidance and glad tidings for those who believe" (2:97). Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

11 Quran – Its Purpose Guidance, Criterion, Resolve differences, Warning, Healing & Mercy, Firm the heart, Lessons & Reminder. "This is the Book; in it is guidance without doubt to those who are righteous" (2:2). " We sent down the book to you so you may explain to them what they are differing over, and as a guidance and mercy for those who believe," (16:64). "Blessed is He who sent down the criterion (the standard) to His servant, that he may be a warner to everyone in the Universe," (25:1) "All that We relate to you of the stories of the messengers is what We make firm your heart with: in them there come to you the Truth as well as a lesson and a reminder to those who believe. (11-120). “We revealed in the Quran that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe.” (17:82) The Quran is not arranged in the sequence of revelations. To understand the Quran one needs to know Arabic, sequence of revelation and occasion of revelation. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

12 Quran - Preservation Human effort: Divine decree:
Documented during the life of the Prophet. Original text still exists. Committed to memory by many. Divine decree: "We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We shall certainly preserve it (from corruption)" (15:9). "No falsehood can approach it from either in front of it or behind it: it is revealed by One Full of Wisdom, Worthy of all Praise" (41:42). "Do not move your tongue (with the revelation) in haste (for fear of forgetting); it is up to Us to collect it and as well as to recite it." (75:16-17) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

13 Quran – Test for authenticity
The Quran is unique because it can be examined using a truly scientific approach. It offers a test of falsification which represents a concept that has only been demanded by the scientific community within the last century. They say, "If you have theory, do not bother us with it unless you bring with that theory a way for us to prove whether you are wrong or right." "Have they not seriously examined the Quran? If it had come from some other source than Allah, they would have found a great deal of contradictions in it" (4:82). "And if you are in any doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant (Mohammad), then produce a chapter like it, and then call in your witnesses, besides Allah, if you are so truthful. If you do not and you will not, then heed the Fire whose fuel is Men and stones which is prepared for the disbelievers " (2:23-24). Religious teachings must withstand unbiased but critical scrutiny to ensure their divine nature. "But the transgressors changed the word from that which had been given them" (2:59). For more that 1400 years the Quran stood in face of all skeptics who tried to prove its human origin. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

14 Quran and Science (about 1000 scientific facts have been stated in the Quran. The following are some examples) The origin of the universe "Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together before We clove them asunder, and We made from water every living thing? Will they not then believe?" (21:30) “We have build the universe with power. Verily, we are expanding it.” (51:47) Embryology ”He created you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.” (39.6) “Then we placed him as a drop (nutfa) in a place of rest. Then We made the “nutfa” into a leach-like structure (Alaqah). Then of the “Alaqah”, We made a chewed lump (mudghah). Then We made out of the “mudghah” bones and clothed the bones with flesh. Then we developed out of it another creature. Most blessed is Allah the best Creator. Then, later on, you die. Then, on the day of judgment, you will be resurrected.” (23:12-14) Geology (mountains) “When you see the mountains you think they are standing still. But they are moving, like the clouds. (27:88) “And we made the mountains as pegs” (78:7) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

15 Prophet Muhammad A descendant of Prophet Ishmael (the father of the Arabs and the first son of Prophet Abraham). There is no person in the world history for whom every details of his life, actions and sayings were recorded as Prophet Muhammad. Born in Mecca, in Arabia on Monday, 570 A.D. He was raised as an orphan by his grandfather and then by his uncle. His father died before his birth and his mother died when he was 6 years old. Married a the age of 25 to his first wife (Khadiga), a 40 year old widow. She was his only wife for 26 years until her death at the age of 66. He grew up well respected by his community for his honesty and sincerity and was given the nickname “Al-Ameen” (the trustworthy). He had four girls (all from Khadiga) who lived to be married and two boys who died very young. All his daughters, except, one died during his life. He had only two grandchildren from that daughter who was married to his cousin (Ali). Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

16 Prophet Muhammad He is the last of God’s prophets and messengers
First revelation at ago of 40. "Read in the name of your Lord who creates, creates man from a clinging clot. Read, for your Lord is the most Generous; it is He who teaches by means of the pen, teaches man what he does not know" (96:1-5). Died at the age of 63 (632 A.D.), after receiving the last revelation. "Today I have perfected your religion for you, and completed My favor toward you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion" (5:3). He is the last of God’s prophets and messengers "Mohammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is Allah's messenger and the seal of the prophets, Allah is aware of everything," (33:40) "I have always held the religion of Muhammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. ….. I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness." G.B. Shaw, THE GENUINE ISLAM, Vol. 1, No Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

17 No separation between state and religion
"Do you follow parts of the scripture and ignore others? The reward for those who do so is shame in this life and the most grievous doom on the hereafter. For Allah is aware of what you do" (2:85). Islamic teachings impacts all 5 elements of culture: Language: Arabic "We have sent it down as an Arabic Quran, in order that you may learn wisdom," (12-2) "We have revealed it to be a judgment of authority in Arabic, " (13:37) Faith: pure monotheism "Say: I (Mohammad) am only a human being like yourselves; it has been revealed to me that your God is one God. Whoever hopes to meet his Lord should do righteous work and not associate anyone in the worship due his Lord" (18:110). Systems: Islam introduced political, legal, financial and social Tools: Science, technology, art, architecture Customs: holidays, greetings, dress Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

18 Concept of Salvation Proper belief (monotheism) Good Deeds
"God does not forgive anyone for associating others with Him, but He forgives anything else to whomever He wishes. Anyone who sets up partners with God has committed the most heinous sin" (4:48). “Those who believe (in the Quran) and those who follow the Jewish scripture, and the Christians and Sabians – who believe in Allah and the day of judgment and do righteous deeds – shall have their reward from their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (2:62) Good Deeds There is no place in the Quran where the believers are mentioned without stating “Those who believe and do righteous deeds” Allah’s mercy The Prophet said: “No one enters heaven by his actions, only by the mercy of Allah”. He was asked, even you, Prophet of Allah. He said: “Even I, unless Allah blesses me with His mercy.” Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

19 The character of Islam - Mercy
"We have not sent you (Mohammad) except for the purpose of bringing mercy for all creatures" (21:107) The Prophet said: "God will not show mercy to him who does not show mercy to others." The Prophet said: "Every religion has an innate character. The character of Islam is mercy." The Prophet said: "All creatures are God's, and those dearest to God are those who are most merciful to his creatures."  As a manifestation of this Mercy, the Prophet described himself to teach us how to behave. He said: “I give to those who denied me, forgive those of inflicted injustice upon me, and visit those who boycotted me.” "Respond to evil with that which is best, then the one between you and him was hatred will become your sincere friend" (41:34) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

20 The character of Islam – Mercy
Mercy toward Parents "Your Lord has declared that you should worship nothing except Him, and you should show kindness to your parents. Whether either or both of them attain old age while they are still with you, never say to them: "Ouff" nor scold either of them. Speak to them in a generous fashion. Serve them with tenderness and humility, and say: My Lord show them mercy, just as they cared for me as a little child" (17:23-24). God-Conscious – “And He is with you where so ever you may be“ (57:4) “Nor you do any deed (good or evil) but I am Witness thereof when you are doing it“ (10:61) “Whether you disclose what is in your hearts or conceal it, Allah will call you to account for it“ (2:284) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

21 Principles of Islam – Human Dignity
"Surely, We have dignified the children of Adam, We carried them across the land and sea. We provided them with good things for their sustenance, and We have exalted them above many of Our creatures." (17:70) Dignity is secured by Islamic teaching to safeguard faith, life, honor and mind. Safeguard faith (freedom of religion): “There is no compulsion in religion”. (2:256) Safeguard Life: “We ordained that anyone who kills a person, unless it is for murder or spreading mischief in the land, it would be as well he has killed all the people, and whoever saves one person, it would be as he has saved all the people. (5:32) The Prophet said: “The elimination of whole universe is less severe than killing one person unjustly.” Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

22 Principles of Islam – Human Dignity
Safeguard honor "You who believe, do not let some men among you make fun of others, perhaps the latter are better than the former. Do not let some women make fun of other women; perhaps the latter are better than the former. You should not defame nor insult one another by using derogatory nicknames. You who believe, refrain from conjecturing, for in some cases conjecture is a vice. And do not spy on each other, nor speak ill of each other behind their backs" (49:11-12). Safeguard mind Islam forbids the use of any intoxicated substances. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

23 Principles of Islam – Equality & Diversity
Equality of humankind "O' Mankind, We created you from a single pair of a male and female, and set you up as nations and tribes so you know (and cooperate with) each other. Verily, the noblest among you in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. God is full of knowledge and well aware of all things" (49:13). "Among God's signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. In this there are indeed signs for those who understand" (30: 22-23). "O mankind, fear your Lord who created you from a single soul and created its mate from it, and from them He created countless men and women" (4:1). Prophet Mohammad said: "All of you, mankind, are from Adam and Adam is from dust. There is no superiority of an Arab over a non-Arab or a non-Arab over an Arab, or white over black or black over white except by righteousness". Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

24 Principles of Islam – Equality & Diversity
Equality of God’s Messengers and Messages – “Say, we believe in Allah and the revelations given to us and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes and that given to Moses and Jesus and that given to all the prophets from their Lord, we make no difference between them and to Him we are Muslims (2:136). The Quran provides accounts for only 23 previous prophets/messengers (e.g. Adam, Noah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Zachary, John, Jesus) The Prophet said: Allah sent 124,000 prophets and 313 messengers. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

25 Quran account of Creation of Adam
Based on this account, the following conclusions can be drawn: Man was created to inhibit the earth as God’s trustee. The temporary stay of Adam and Eve in Heaven was part of God’s plan to teach them the concepts of commandments, temptations, disobedience, repentance and forgiveness. Superiority based on race is satanic principle. Superiority based on knowledge and righteousness is acceptable. Even is not responsible for Adam’s sin by disobeying God. Adam and Eve were forgiven, therefore, the concept of origin sin is not Islamic. Man (descendants of Adam) may not be the first creation to inhibit the earth. "So when your Lord told the angels: I will create a trustee (the Arabic word "Khalifa") on earth. They said: will you place someone there who will corrupt it and shed blood, while we hymn Your praise and glorify You. He said: I know what you do not know. He taught Adam the names of everything, then presented them to the angles and said: tell Me the name of these if you are truthful. They said: Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except whatever You have taught us, You are the All-Knowing, the Wise. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

26 Quran account of Creation of Adam
He said: Adam, tell them their names. Once he had told them their names, God said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth and I know what you reveal and what you conceal? So We told the angles: Bow down to Adam. They all bowed down, except for Iblis the Satan (he was one of the Jinns, S18-V50). He refused and acted proudly and so became a disbeliever. (Allah said: What prevented you from bowing down when I commanded you ? He said: I am better than him; You created me from fire, while You created him from clay. Allah said: get down from here, you have no reason to be arrogant, S7-V12,13). (Iblis said: See, this creature whom You honored above me, if You postpone my punishment until the day of judgment, I shall bring all but few of them under my mastery. Allah said: Go away, any of them who follows you will have Hell as a reward, it is an ample reward for you all. S17-V62,63) We said: Adam dwell you and your wife in the Garden, and eat freely from it anywhere either of you may wish. Yet do not approach this tree lest you become wrongdoers. Satan made them stumble over it and had them both expelled from the garden. We said: Go down, with enmity among yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling place and your means of livelihood, for a while. Then Adam received words of inspiration from his Lord and His Lord accepted his repentance for He is the Acceptor of Repentance, the Merciful. We said: get down from it together. If you should be handed guidance from Me, then anyone who follows My guidance will have no fear nor they will be saddened. While those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations will become inmates of the fire; they shall remain in it." Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

27 Women - Equality Equal Rights and Obligations: "And the believers, men and women are protecting friends to one another. They pursue what is right and forbid what is wrong. They observe regular prayers and pay charity (zakah), and they obey Allah and His messenger. As for these, Allah shall have mercy on them. Verily, Allah is Mighty, Wise. Allah promises the believers, men and women, gardens underneath which rivers flow, to abide therein - blessed dwellings in Gardens of Eden. And greater than that is Allah's acceptance, that is the supreme success" (9:71-72). Who is Better? "By the night as it conceals, by the day as it appears, by the creation of male and female; indeed your roles are different." (92:1-4) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

28 Treatment of Women Be Kindest with Women The Prophet said:
"Treat your wives politely, even if you dislike them, perhaps you dislike something in which Allah has placed much good" (4:19) The Prophet said: “Heaven is placed at Mothers’ feet” “The best of you are those who are the best to their wives” “The best deed of a man is that a spoonful that he puts in his wife’s mouth” “That who raises a daughter properly, she shall be his pass to heaven” Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

29 Women – Financial Freedom
Civil Rights – Women in Islam are fully entitled to education, work, inheritance, right to vote, …. Islamic laws (600 A.D.) recognizes the full property rights of women before and after marriage. They may buy, sell or lease any or all of their properties at will. (In Britain, married women achieved the right to own property and enter into contracts by a series of acts stating with the Married Women's Property Act in 1870, amended in 1882 and 1887. Muslim women traditionally keep their maiden names after marriage, an indication of their independent rights as legal entities. No Muslim jurist is able to point to an explicit text in the Quran and Sunnah that excludes women from any lawful type of employment, except for the headship of the state. Even in this case, the exception is not categorical. Omar, the second Caliph, appointed "Um-Al-Shifaa Bint Abdullah" as a marketplace supervisor, a position equivalent to a director of consumer protection department. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

30 Women Leadership in Islam – Some Examples
The first believer in Islam was a woman (Khadija, the wife of the Prophet). The first martyr for Islam was a woman (Somaiah, the mother of Amaar Ibn Yaser). The first intelligent officer who collected the news of the enemy and gave it to the Prophet during his flight from Mecca was a woman (Asmaa, the daughter of Abou Bakr). During the battle of Uhud, when men left their positions, women stood fighting beside the Prophet. One of these women was Naseebah Bint Kaab who the Prophet described her courage by saying, "Whatever direction I looked, I saw Nassebah Bint Kaab standing with her sword to protect me". Many Muslim men studied under the great Muslim woman scholar Asmaa Bint Zayd Al-Ansari. She also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk against the Romans and suffered nine injuries. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

31 Polygamy Associating polygamy with Islam is one of the most persistent myths. Islam did not encourage or outlaw polygamy, rather it regulated and restricted it. "If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, marry women of your choice, two or three or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with them, then only one." (4:3) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

32 Abortion Islam condemns abortion due to fear of poverty.
“Don’t kill your children because of poverty, we provide for you and and for them. Don’t commit shameful deeds whether open or secret. Don’t kill the life that Allah made sacred except by way of justice. (6:151) “Don’t kill your children fearing a fall to poverty, We shall provide for them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them is a great sin. (17:31) However abortion for cases such as rape and incest is allowed but guided by time at which the fetus becomes a human being: The Prophet said: “Verily, the creation of each one of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days in the form of a mixed drop, then in the form of a clinging structure for the like period, then in the form of a chewed lump for the like period, then Allah sends to him an angel who blows the soul into him …..” Muslims scholars have differed in whether these stages are overlapping or are in series. The majority view is that the soul enters into the body after 40 days from conception but the other view is that it enters after 120 days. In case of risk to Mother’s life, abortion is allowed at anytime , but a blood money equal to ½ of that paid for killing by mistake should be paid to the poor. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

33 Jihad Jihad means struggle/strive to do/support good and prevent/oppose evil. It does not mean holy war. The term holy war neither exists in Quran nor in the sunnah. "History makes it clear however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated." ‑‑De Lacy Alar, ISLAM AT THE CROSSROADS, London, 1923, p. 8. Levels of Jihad Struggle to do good and avoid evil within yourself Struggle to do good and avoid evil in the society Struggle in battlefields … as a last resort Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

34 Jihad – Battle Field "Permission to fight is given to those against whom war is made, because they have been wronged and to those who have been driven from their home unjustly only because they said: Our Lord is God, and God is indeed Able to give them victory. If it were not because God repels some men by means of others, cloisters, churches, synagogues and mosques, where God's name is mentioned frequently, would have been demolished. God supports anyone who supports Him - God is Strong, Powerful. We (God) will give victory to those who, if we give them power in the land, would establish worship and pay the welfare tax and enjoin kindness and forbid iniquity" (22:39-41). "Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not initiate hostilities; God does not love aggressors" (2:190). Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

35 Islam always gives peace a chance
Be a just peacemaker: Whenever, two parties had a conflict, try to reconcile them. If one of them should oppress the other, then fight the one that acts oppressively until they comply with the ordinance of God. If they should comply, then make peace between them justly, and act equitably. Allah loves the equitable" (49:9) "And let not the ill will toward any people, lead you to be unfair. Help one another in righteousness and piety and do not help one another in vice and aggression. Fear Allah, for Allah is strict in punishment" (5:2). Always give peace a chance even if you believe that it is a trick from the enemy: "And if they incline to peace, then incline to it also, and rely on God, He is Alert, Aware. Should they intend to deceive you, let God serve as your protector" (8:61).  Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

36 Rules of War Recognizing the inherent and manifest evils of wars, even the just ones, Islam provides rules of conduct during wars: Islam forbids surprise wars and commands Muslims to warn their enemies of impending war. Muslim jurists have maintained that the time interval that follows the final ultimatum must be sufficient to enable the enemy to alert all sections of his country.  Islam entitles foreign subjects with rights that can not be violated by reasons of war between Muslims and the subjects' country of origin. They are entitled to security of life and property and to protection to ensure their safe return to their original homeland. Islam forbids setting a time limit for them to settle their financial affairs to avoid forcing them to do so under adverse conditions. Islam forbids the killing of all who are not participating in combat (i.e. civilians). Muslim jurists have advocated that hostilities should cease if civilians are caught between the ranks of the fighting forces. Islam forbids forcing the enemy into submission by starving the warring nation. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

37 Rules of War (contd.) Islam forbids burning plants, cutting down trees, poisoning water, depriving civilians from their lands that lay in the path of advancing and withdrawing armies. Islam forbids mutilation of bodies and demands that the enemy should be allowed to bury their dead with dignity. Islam commands compassion and kindness to prisoners, to the extent that they should receive a treatment equal to that of the orphans and poor. "And they feed, for the love of God, the needy, the orphan and the prisoner. And say we feed you for the sake of God only; we want no reward from you, nor any thanks" (76:8-9). Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

38 Classification on Muslims
Muslims: A person who declares that there is no God by Allah and Mohammad is His messenger. Believers: “When the Arabs say they are believers, tell them you are only Muslims until belief enters your heart.” (49:14) "(The believers) are those who preserve their trusts and oaths, and those who stand by their testimony" (70:32-33). “(the believers) those in whose wealth there is a recognized right for the beggar and for the unlucky who has lost his wealth” (70:24-25) Hypocrites: “Some of the people say we believe in Allah and the day of judgment but they do not really believe. They want to deceive Allah and the believers but they only deceive themselves but do not realize it. In their heart is a disease and Allah has increased their disease and they will receive great punishment for their lies. When it is said to them, do not cause mischief on the earth. They say: we are the one who are putting things right. Surely, they are the wrongdoers but they do not realize it. When it is said to them: believe as other believe. They say: Shall we believe as the fools believe. Surely, they are the fools but they do not know it.” (2: 8-13) The Prophet (PBUH) said: "There are three characteristics of a hypocrite: when he speaks he lies; when he makes a promise he does not fulfill it; and when he is trusted, he betrays." Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

39 Classification on Muslims
Unguided Extremists The Prophet said: "There will appear in this nation a group of people who project the image of extreme piety that you will consider your prayers inferior to their prayers and your fasting inferior to their fasting. They will quote the Quran but its teachings will not go beyond their throats. They will go out of their religion as an arrow darts through the game, whereupon the archer checks his arrow for blood stain and sees nothing, he checks the arrow feathers and sees nothing and checks the lower part of the arrow and sees (i.e. they will have not even a trace of Islam in them)." (Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 9.65 and 6.578) The Prophet said: "In later days, there will appear some young foolish men who will use the best speech (i.e. the Quran and the Sunnah) but it will not go beyond their throats, they deviate from Islam as an arrow misses the game. So wherever you find them, fight them, for he who fights them shall get a reward on the Day of Resurrection." (Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith 4.808, and 9.64) Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01

40 In Closing ….. The Prophet (PBUH) said: My God advised me with nine commandments and I am advising you to abide by them. He commanded me: with sincerity in private and public with justice during happiness or anger with moderation during richness or poverty that I shall forgive those who inflicted injustice upon me that I shall give those who denied me that I shall visit those who boycott me that my silence shall be contemplation that my speech shall be remembrance and my sight shall be discernment. Islam - M M Salama-Nov'01


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