Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Jiří Štekláč‘s.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Jiří Štekláč‘s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Jiří Štekláč‘s

2 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Structure of this project Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances

3 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ► What kind of addictions do we know? ►Internally by own „brain“ ►Externally by own „act“ ► How we can judge degree of danger? ►neutral danger ◄

4 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ► What kind of regulations exist? ► prohibiton ► strict regulation ► legalization ► What kind of addictive substances we talk about? ► prohibited danger addictive substances which are using externally

5 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Lesson from History Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►1909 – Shanghai opium conference ►1912 – International opium convence ►1914 – Harrison‘s narcotic act (USA) ►1925,31 – Geneva ►1936,46,48,53 – next steps ►1961 – „Treaty on drugs“ - UNO

6 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Lesson from History Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Amount of adopted antidrug-law in USA from 1965 to 1998

7 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►TWO ALTERNATIVES ►Conservatives - drugs shouldn‘t be legalised because it would rise up amount of addicts ►Liberals - drugs should be legalised because there would be no more addicts and lower criminality Area of theories

8 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Area of theories Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►CONCERVATIVE WAY ►Elliot Currie - „Higher levels of drug use do go hand in hand with increased crime, especially property crime.“ ►Bill Bennett - „Making drugs legal would just be a way of subsidizing [addicts] habit. They would continue to rob and steal to pay for food, for clothes, for entertainment.“

9 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Area of theories Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►LIBERAL WAY ►Gary Stanley Becker „Every american president without exception has lost war with drugs.“ -The problem is in property of demand for drugs (very unelastic) -expected punishment raises the price, but do not diminish demanded quantity significantly (►drugs are very expensive for everybody - trader, consumer and for government) SOLUTION: „Legalization of drugs combined with an excise tax on consumption would be a far cheaper and more effective way to reduce drug use.“

10 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Area of theories Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►LIBERAL WAY ►Milton Friedman -Effect of „forbidden fruits“ -He wrote an open letter to Bill Bennett: -„Illegality creates obscene profits that finance the murderous tactics of the drug lords.“ -„Had drugs been decriminalized 17 years ago, "crack" would never have been invented.“ -He highlighted the link between drug and alcohol prohibition SOLUTION: Drugs in every shop & supermarket

11 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Consequences of the antidrug-laws Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►What will people do If government prohibit some good??? A)People stop buying prohibited good B) People will buy it on the black market Pears Apples Left shoe Right shoe Remains here or not?

12 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Consequences of the antidrug-laws Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Adopted law & drug criminality in USA from 1965 to 1998 Amount of law adopted Drug arrests per population Consequences: Drugs are almost complements to other goods for addicts, If government extend amount of adopted anti-drug law, than the amount of criminals will be extended too.

13 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Consequences of the antidrug-laws Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Evolution of drug-related deaths in USA from 1979 to 2006 per population Consequences: More Antidrug law cause more intensive development of more dangerous drugs

14 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Consequences of the antidrug-laws Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Absolute amount of outlaw drug trades in USA from 1993 to 2007 Consequences: Strictest punishment as death penalty does not influenced rising tendency of drug trading Senator Joe Biden (nowadays vicepresident) promoted drug Kingpins on the federal level above the murderers -Introduction of death penalty for drug distribution

15 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Conclusions on addictive substances Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►We can accept two thesis ►Racional thesis about addiction and addictive substances - every addiction is caused by addictive substance and we can only distinguish between internally and externally way of using ►Empirical thesis about the paradox impact of prohibition of addictive substances -extension of anti-drug law brings extension of drug criminality and it‘s in contradiction with sence of anti-drug law. Moreover it has very negative impact on social and economic aspects.

16 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Conclusions on addictive substances Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Sence of first thesis ►Government are not able to prohibit all addictive substances (especially internal) and in these cases punishment is possible only „ex post“ -example: government can‘t prohibit using of substance, which is produced by brain and caused addiction to power …

17 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Conclusions on addictive substances Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Sence of first thesis ►Government do not prohibit some external addictive substances -example: petrol which we can buy everywhere and we can use it as external addictive substance Why anybody buy expensive drugs instead of petrol? Maybe because petrol has not effect of forbidden fruit, maybe because addict rather buy „quality drug“ which is produced by drug producer in this „quality“ only because this drug is forbidden!

18 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Conclusions on addictive substances Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Sence of second thesis ►From the empirical evidence: Policy of prohibition of drugs has been failed and extended whole problem ►No evidence that prohibition of drugs brings lower level of addicts

19 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Conclusions on addictive substances Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances ►Why drugs still not legal? ►almost conservative society ►myths about the human act ►lack of courage of politicans to talk about controversial topics ►apathy to results of anti-drug policy ►ethical, religious and moral prejudices

20 Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Sources: Introduction & generally about addiction Lesson from History Area of theories Consequences of the antidrug-laws Conclusions on addictive substances Literacy: Milton Friedman: Prohibition and Drugs - From Newsweek, May 1, 1972 Milton Friedman: The War We Are Losing - Searching for Alternatives: Drug-Control Policy in the United States, pp , Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Milton Friedman: An Open Letter To Bill Bennett, The Wall Street Journal, Thursday, September 7, 1989 The US Dept. of Justice: Drug Legalization: Myths and Misconceptions Internet sources: History of the War on Drugs, Gary Becker: The failure of the War on Drugs, posner-blog.com/http://www.becker- posner-blog.com/ EUROSTAT, Federal Bureau of Investigate (FBI), Timeline: America's War on Drugs,


Download ppt "Addiction & Addictive substanes 5ie450, Economics of state interventionism Jiří Štekláč‘s."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google