Presentation on theme: "The Nation Breaking Apart Ch. 15. Growing Tension Between North & South Section 1: *Economies developed diff. in N. and S. in early 1800’s South: relied."— Presentation transcript:
Growing Tension Between North & South Section 1: *Economies developed diff. in N. and S. in early 1800’s South: relied on plantation farming/slaves North: developed more industry >>> rapid growth of cities (many immigrants)
*South: -Few wealthy planters controlled society. -Made great profits from slave labor (trade). -Planters relied on cotton. -Invested in slaves rather than industry. -Result…South dev. little industry!! *Most Southern whites were poor farmers with NO slaves BUT accepted slavery b/c it kept them off the bottom of society.
Wilmot Proviso *1846 – U.S. went to war with Mexico -Northerners believed Southerners wanted to take territory from Mex. to extend slavery. -David Wilmot (rep. from Penn.) proposed a bill: Outlaw slavery in any terr. the U.S. might gain from the War with Mex. *Slaveholders believed Congress couldn’t prevent them from taking PROPERTY into any of the territories. *Southerners claimed it unconstitutional!!
*Divided Congress! Bill passed in House – not Senate. -Wilmot Proviso didn’t become law BUT had important effects: Led to the creation of the Free-Soil Party (dedicated to stop expansion of slavery) SLOGAN: “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.” *Made slavery a key issue in national politics – couldn’t be ignored any longer -1848: Free-Soil Party had 10 seats in Congress!
Controversy over Territories *1848: What does the U.S. do with land gained from War with Mexico??? *Addition of new states threatened balance in Congress between N. and S. Compromise of 1850: -Sen. Henry Clay (Ken.) 1.For North: Calif. admitted a free state, slave trade abolished in DC 2. For South: Pass no more laws on slavery and rest of territories won from Mexico and pass stronger laws to recapture runaway slaves
*People wanted to hold the Union together *Passed and became law: Compromise of 1850 *Some celebrated it believing it saved the Union BUT IT DID NOT BRING PEACE! End of Section 1
The Crisis Deepens Section 2: Fugitive Slave Act: -1850 law -People accused of being fugitives could be held without an arrest warrant -No right to jury trial (federal officer ruled each case) *Officer got $5 for releasing defendant and $10 for turning defendant over to slaveholder! THIS IS SOOOOO WRONG AND INJUST!
*Southerners thought law was justified b/c slaves were seen as property *Northerners resented it! Why???? >> -Required Northerners to help recapture runaway slaves -Placed fines on people who would not cooperate -Jail terms for people who helped fugitives escape -Southern slave catchers roamed the North, sometimes capturing free African Americans
*Presence of slave catchers throughout N. brought issue of slavery home for Northerners *Moral dilemma!! “If I support the Fugitive Slave Act, I am supporting slavery???” *Should they obey the law and support slavery or break the law and oppose it????
Uncle Tom’s Cabin *Published in 1852. *Author: Harriett Beecher Stowe *Novel dramatically portrayed the moral issues of slavery. *Main character: Uncle Tom, older slave Plot: Centers on Tom’s life under three owners *Book incredibly popular in the North! *White Southerners believed it falsely criticized the South and slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act *Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom’s Cabin increased conflict between N. and S. **Issue of slavery in the terr. brought violence to the West. *1854: Sen. Stephen Douglas (Ill.) proposed a bill that the Neb. terr. be divided into two: Nebraska and Kansas. *To get S. support he proposed popular sovereignty – residents vote to decide an issue.
*If bill passed, it would get rid of the Missouri Compromise by allowing people to vote for slavery. *Southerners supported the repeal of Missouri Compromise and new bill *Angered opponents of slavery *Bill passed: Kansas-Nebraska Act **This act would turn Kansas into a battle- ground over slavery.
“Bleeding Kansas” *Pro and antislavery settlers rushed to Kansas Terr. to vote on territorial legislature *Proslavery forced didn’t want to risk losing the election and thousands rushed in and voted illegally. RESULT?? Kansas legislature full of proslavery reps! **Antislavery boycotted the government and formed one on their own!
*Political authority in trouble, settlers on both sides armed themselves. *John Brown: extreme abolitionist. He and seven men murdered five people who were proslavery *As news of violence spread, civil war broke out in Kansas and continued for three years *Became known as “Bleeding Kansas” *Violence even broke out in Congress! End of Section 2