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CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing Keith A. Pray Instructor socialimps.keithpray.net CLASS 2 CRITICAL THINKING © 2015 Keith A. Pray
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing OVERVIEW 1. Review 2. Assignment 3. Guest Speaker 4. Critical Thinking © 2015 Keith A. Pray2
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing MY READING NOTES pp. 3 Plenty of businesses used in Compare with academic use? Cell phones do much more now. pp. 5 Three Mile Island source published 2001, = How about now? pp. 20 Metric for most popular? Are there are more popular PCs today? pp. 28 How did computerized prediction of election results get worse from 1952 pp 13? pp. 29 “…transfer programs and data only.” Isn’t everything data? “200 million messages” 90% of which are spam (pp. 112) pp. 31 Lots of buzz on campus for the 1995 switch of backbone providers saw the introduction of *handheld* mobile phone, larger versions available dating back to 1946  and earlier. pp. 32 Greek Alphabet a nice addition to this section! pp. 33 What surfaced was inked? pp. 34 demonstrated in 1968, pp. 29 claims 1972 but maybe just for ARPANET. pp. 35 the “mother of all demos” is worth watching if you haven’t. Watch it and write a 1 page paper for extra credit (2 points). pp. 36 HyperCard was my first. Does Windows still have a near monopoly? pp. 38 “just about everyone” implies a large majority, 7.22 billion people , ~4 billion accounts , with many people having multiple accounts. pp. 43 Q 45, Source for 90%? End of Chapter questions I liked: 2, 4, 11, 13, 15, 17, 17, 38, 43 © 2015 Keith A. Pray3
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing GROUP QUIZ! 1. List 4 ways of committing plagiarism. 2. Who invented the computer mouse? 3. Name earliest wireless network mentioned in Chapter List 2 practical reasons it was more rapidly adopted on the continent of Europe than the British Isles. © 2015 Keith A. Pray4
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing © 2015 Keith A. Pray5 Douglas Engelbart ( )
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing ASSIGNMENT Create an information processing technology timeline – You can choose any scope (time periods, domains, etc.) and format you like – Example timeline - Write a 1 page paper that draws a conclusion using your timeline to illustrate your point. Class Timeline Wiki – Add items from your timeline to myWPI Timeline Computing Timeline – Please (insertion) sort according to date. – Add your references © 2015 Keith A. Pray6
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing OVERVIEW 1. Review 2. Assignment 3. Guest Speaker 4. Critical Thinking © 2015 Keith A. Pray7
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing © 2015 Keith A. Pray8
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing LOGICAL ARGUMENTS Premise 1 Premise 2 (optional). Premise 3 (optional) Conclusion Every A is a B C is an A Conclusion: C is a B Every dog is a canine Rupert is a dog Conclusion: Rupert is a canine © 2015 Keith A. Pray9
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing WEAK OR STRONG ARGUMENTS All bats are animals Some wooden objects are bats Conclusion: Some wooden objects are animals © 2015 Keith A. Pray10 Valid | Invalid Inductive | Fallacious Sound | Unsound WeakStrong
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 1/7 Slippery Slope – “A bad guy might use computers to steal. Therefore we should outlaw computers.” © 2015 Keith A. Pray11
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 2/7 Attack Person, Not Argument – Ad Hominem – “He’s a messy eater, obviously his software design will never work.” © 2015 Keith A. Pray12
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 3/7 Begging The Question – Petitio Principii, Circulus in Probando – “OO languages are superior to non-OO languages because they have objects as their basic constructs.” Appeal To Authority – Ad Vericundiam – “Ernie, an expert on internet protocols, said MySpace is far superior than Facebook, so it must be so” Many / Any – “Many programming languages have strong typing, so Scheme must as well.” © 2015 Keith A. Pray13
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 4/7 False Cause – Non Sequitur – post hoc ergo propter hoc – “The day after Billy Bob Joe bought a Mac, Apple’s stock went up. Clearly Billy Bob Joe’s purchase was the cause.” © 2015 Keith A. Pray14
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 5/7 Composition / Division – “All the actors in this movie are highly skilled, the movie must be great.” – “WPI was founded in 1865 so all the faculty must be at least ~168 years old.” Appeal To The People – Argumentum ad Populum – “Windows is installed on more desktop computers than any other OS. Windows is the best OS.” © 2015 Keith A. Pray15
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 6/7 Ambiguity – Often a form of conflation. – “All bats are animals. Some wooden objects are bats. Therefore, some wooden objects are animals.” – Respect – “recognize a right” vs. “hold in high regard” © 2015 Keith A. Pray16
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing COMMON FALLACIES 7/7 Straw Man – “He says taking Social Imps is a waste of time. He wants you to think computing and society are useless.” There are many more… seems to be no limit to the ways in which humankind can err. © 2015 Keith A. Pray17
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing Keith A. Pray Instructor socialimps.keithpray.net CLASS 2 THE END © 2015 Keith A. Pray
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing Keith A. Pray Instructor socialimps.keithpray.net CLASS 2 CRITICAL THINKING.
CS 3043 Social Implications Of Computing 12/2/2015© 2009 Keith A. Pray 1 Class 1 Introduction Keith A. Pray Instructor socialimps.keithpray.net.
Understanding Logical Fallacies. Assignment You will have one hour to study the provided PowerPoint and work with your group to make a Fallacy Cheat Sheet.
Text Table of Contents #5 and #8: Evaluating the Argument.
Unit 1- Critical Thinking Critical Thinking –Argument Three Characteristics of Argument Crtitical Thinking Skills for Identifying Fallacies –Ad Hominem.
Logical Arguments an argument can be defined as a: form of reasoning that attempts to establish the truth of one claim (called a conclusion) based on the.
Understanding Logical Fallacies NOTE: JUST BECAUSE THE WAY ONE ARRIVES AT A CONCLUSION IS FAULTY DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE CONCLUSION ITSELF IS FAULTY!
Logical Fallacies A logical fallacy is an element of an argument that is flawed If spotted one can essentially render an entire line of reasoning invalid.
Logical Fallacies AKA “How NOT to Win an Argument”
Deductive Validity Truth preserving: The conclusion logically follows from the premises. It is logically impossible for the premises to be true and the.
Chapter Two: Good Reasoning Review Applying Ethics: A Text with Readings (10 th ed.) Julie C. Van Camp, Jeffrey Olen, Vincent Barry Cengage Learning/Wadsworth.
Reasoning -deductive versus inductive reasoning -two basic types of deductive reasoning task: conditional (propositional) and syllogistic.
Rhetorical Fallacies A failure in reasoning that renders an argument invalid. Faulty reasoning, misleading or unsound argument.
Logical Fallacies. Sentimental Appeal Using emotion to distract the audience from the facts To which emotions is this appealing?
CSSE442 Computer Security – March 12, 2007 Tools for Evaluating Cyberethics Issues Ad Hominem Argument Slippery Slope Argument Fallacy of Appeal to Authority.
The idea of research is to study what others have published and form your own opinions. When you quote people, or even when you summarize or paraphrase.
In this task you will see 16 different arguments. You have to identify which of the 8 common fallacies is being used by the argument.
Chapter Two: Good Reasoning Applying Ethics: A Text with Readings (10 th ed.) Julie C. Van Camp, Jeffrey Olen, Vincent Barry Cengage Learning/Wadsworth.
PERSUASION. “Everybody Hates Chris” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FBlJn99Hrbw.
LOGICAL FALLACIES. Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments.
A Journey into the Mind Logic and Debate Unit. Week 2: May 23 through May 26 The Fallacies SWBAT: Identify the common fallacies in logic in order to be.
©2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 16 Thinking and Speaking Critically.
Critical Thinking (and Logical Fallacies) All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. All cadets wear uniforms. Thompson wears.
LOGICAL FALLACIES Errors in Reasoning. LOGIC The science of how to evaluate arguments and reasoning Logic allows us to distinguish correct reasoning from.
Logical Fallacies A Brief Review. Argumentum ad hominem This is the error of attacking the character or motives of a person who has stated an idea, rather.
Informal Fallacies Let’s see some more examples!.
Recap The slippery slope fallacy Starting out in one direction and carrying on ‘too far’ in that direction with sufficient evidence/argument. ‘there.
LOGICAL FALLACIES. Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc “After this, therefore because of this.”
Fallacies To error in reason is human; to analyze divine!
Level 6 Activity – Logical Fallacies 101 WNB Academic Vocabulary Section: Fallacies – false or misleading arguments Fallacy TypeDefinitionExample.
Arguments Analysis and Criticism Week 8. Learning Objectives Benefits Of Arguments Analysis An Approach For Analysis Understanding Fallacies.
Fallacies of Argument AKA Logical Fallacies. What is a Fallacy? Overview of Fallacies A mistaken belief based on unsound arguments.
Chapter 10 Lecture Notes Causal Inductive Arguments.
When Claims Go Wrong Recognizing & Avoiding Logical Fallacies Kim Miller Davis.
Be Reasonable! Recognize and Avoid Logical Fallacies.
Logical Fallacies Introduction. What is a logical fallacy? A fallacy is an error of reasoning. These are flawed statements that often sound true Logical.
Read the following argument. Examine it closely. Do you think it is logically sound? Why? [T]he acceptance of abortion does not end with the killing.
LOGIC 2+2=4… right?. Logical Reasoning Statements formed from sound thinking and proof of reasoning.
PERSUASION. Credibility: Audience’s perception of how believable the speaker is Factors of credibility: Competence- how the audience regards the intelligence,
CM 220 Unit 2 Seminar General Education, Composition Kaplan University 1.
Fallacy An error of reasoning based on faulty use of evidence or incorrect interpretation of facts.
Chapter 4 Listening. Listening in Everyday Communication Most frequent communication activity (12 hours daily) Often taken for granted Accounts for 90%
1 CM 220 Unit 2 Seminar General Education, Composition Kaplan University.
TODAY’S GOALS Learn advanced strategies for addressing counterarguments Finalize preparations for the class debate.
Paulina Cabrera, Celina Palafox, Daniela Gomez, Cynthia Avalos.
Listening Listening Skills Suggested in the Textbook Insights from Listening Research Critical Thinking.
Logical Fallacies Engl 1302 Heilig. What are logical fallacies? Bad! Common errors in reasoning Often substitute emotion for evidence Often oversimplify.
False Premises and Relevant Detail. Warm Up In your journal, brainstorm what you think false premises in persuasive writing might be.
Session #5 – Critical Analysis & Writing PA Writing.
Rhetorical Proofs and Fallacies Week 10 – Wednesday, October 28.
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