Mason-Dixon Line Separates: North and South/ Free and Slave
The North Manufacturing/ Industrial Economy Large Urban Areas High Tariffs help industry against foreign imports Capital invested in manufacturing and transportation (infrastructure) Slave Trade abolished in North and Slavery Illegal since Revolution Abolitionist societies and newspapers (most people ambivalent or racist) Large populations of Free Blacks, could own property and had some rights
The South Agricultural/ Plantation Economy Main Cash Crops: tobacco, sugar, or COTTON Capital invested in slaves and in over-seas markets Did not like Tariffs Economy relies on Slavery. Slaves viewed as property and labor source. Slaves have no property and no rights. Considered tariff’s and slavery State’s Rights issues –Believed in State’s Rights
The West Cheap land New states being formed according to NW Ordinance Wanted govt to spend money on infrastructure and transportation to keep them connected to the East
Issue: State’s Rights Strict interpretation of the Constitution Limited Federal Powers Autonomy of States South said that 10 th amendment gave them the right to keep their slaves (State’s Rights)
Issue: Slavery First Began in Jamestown, Virginia South always trying to protect slavery by controlling votes of Congress Increasing populations in the North (immigration) means that North gets more and more votes in Congress http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjOJzX54QYs
Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850 ß Wilmot Proviso- tried to outlaw slavery in new territories after War with Mexico. Never passed senate. ß Free-Soil Party- “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.” Abolitionist political party. Missouri Compromise- (Henry Clay) Missouri enters as slave state and Maine as free state. All new states above 36 ° 30 ° would be free (maintained balance of power) ß Nullification Crisis- revolved around state’s right to declare federal laws unconstitutional. John C. Calhoun. ß 1850 California Applies for statehood as “free state” –would tip balance of power
Compromise of 1850 Senator Henry Clay (The “Great Compromiser’) from Kentucky offers compromise: –Calif admitted as free state and slave trade abolished (pleased Northerners) –No laws regarding slavery for remainder of territories and stronger fugitive slave laws (pleased southerners) Stephen Douglas of Illinois wins passage of plan Daniel Webster of Mass gives famous speech: Seventh of March speech, characterizing himself "not as a Massachusetts man, nor as a Northern man but as an American..." to support compromise
Fugitive Slave Act Accused run-away slaves held without warrant and received no trial Commissioner received $ for each slave returned Helping a slave punishable by $1000 and 6 mos jail –Southern slave catchers begin coming north, sometimes capturing free African Americans –North has a Moral Choice: obey law & support slavery or break law?
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln “It's a matter of taking the side of the weak against the strong, something the best people have always done.” --Harriet Beecher Stowe So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln “It's a matter of taking the side of the weak against the strong, something the best people have always done.” --Harriet Beecher Stowe
Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Book about a slave’s life Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade! Inspired people to fight against slavery Book about a slave’s life Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade! Inspired people to fight against slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Stephen Douglas of Illinois Popular Sovereignty- Allow people of state to decide for themselves
“ Bleeding Kansas ” Pro-Slavery and Abolitionist groups flood Kansas to vote the state in their favor They began fighting each other and started a mini- civil war Pro-Slavery and Abolitionist groups flood Kansas to vote the state in their favor They began fighting each other and started a mini- civil war
John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr? Mural in the Kansas Capitol building by John Steuart Curry An abolitionist: He and his sons murdered 5 pro-slavery farmers with broad swords to try to stop them from voting
“ Bleeding Sumner ” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC) Sumner gave an impassioned speech about how he felt the Southern Congressmen were cheating Brooks attacked him with a fireplace poker severely wounding him.
Birth of the Republican Party, 1854 ßNorthern Whigs. ßNorthern Democrats. ßFree-Soilers. ßKnow-Nothings. ßOther miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. ßWanted to Stop Spread of Slavery ßLost 1856 election to Democrat James Buchanan ßNorthern Whigs. ßNorthern Democrats. ßFree-Soilers. ßKnow-Nothings. ßOther miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. ßWanted to Stop Spread of Slavery ßLost 1856 election to Democrat James Buchanan
Watch Slave Narratives https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euqml- p3SJAhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=euqml- p3SJA Then write a 3-7 sentence reaction to what you have read. What are the many ways that slavery affected people and communities.
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857 1857: Landmark Supreme Court Case which confirmed status of slaves as property rather than citizens. Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote that slaves could not be heard in court because not protected by Constitution Said that Congress had no authority over statehood, and each state could decide for itself.-This overturns the Missouri Compromise South North
“Civil Disobedience” Henry David Thoreau wrote this essay He refused to pay taxes to support government that allowed slavery and fought aggressive war with Mexico People should not break laws indiscriminately, but have moral obligation to refuse laws that are unjust Martin Luther King and Mohammad Ghandi “Passive Resistance”
The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates, 1858 “A House divided against itself, cannot stand.” “A House divided against itself, cannot stand.”
John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859 Brown wants to inspire a slave revolt. Brown and 18 others kill 4 people in raid. Capture arsenal and send word out to slaves to join fight. No slaves come. Brown captured tried for murder and treason and hanged On his death day abolitionists toll bells and fire guns in salute
1860 Presidential Election √ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat
Southern States Secede If voluntary union, then right to secede! December 20, 1860 South Carolina 1 st state to secede Miss, FL, AL, GA, LA, and TX soon join »Form Confederate States of America and elect Jefferson Davis as President »Confederate Constitution
Crittenden Compromise: A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity Senator John J. Crittenden (Know-Nothing-KY) Slavery would be prohibited north of 36-30 line and be protected south of line Did not pass congress