Presentation on theme: "Mr. Owens The Roaring Twenties Part 2. Essential Questions How did technological change, modernization, and changing demographics cause increased political."— Presentation transcript:
Mr. Owens The Roaring Twenties Part 2
Essential Questions How did technological change, modernization, and changing demographics cause increased political and conflict during the 1920s including: tradition vs. innovation, urban vs. rural, fundamentalist Christianity vs. scientific modernism, management vs. labor, native- born vs. new immigrants, white vs. black, and idealism vs. disillusionment?
Science vs. Religion Modernism: melding of Christianity with modern Darwinian science – Harry Emerson Fosdick Fundamentalism: literal truth of the Bible, blamed modernists for immorality, opposed evolution Revivalism: new Great Awakening style preaching, used the radio – Billy Sunday (anti-drinking, gambling, dancing) Aimee Semple McPherson preached against twin evils of communism & jazz in Los Angeles Scopes Trial: Science vs. Religion Tennessee’s “Butler Act” (& other Southern states) banned teaching of evolution in public schools American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) supported John T. Scopes to defy law in Dayton 1925 “Monkey Trial” defended by ACLU lawyer Clarence Darrow Prosecuted by fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan Scopes found guilty (later overturned on technicality) but laws remained & battle between science & religion continued – Bryan died 5 days later
Prohibition Causes: “Drys” led by WCTU, Anti-Saloon League & rising fundamentalists, most Republicans, business leaders & anti-Germanism – 18 th Amendment ratified in 1919 Prohibition Volstead Act passed to enforce it (included anything over 1% alcohol) Effects: more success in rural areas, but not in cities Speakeasies – illegal bars & saloons Bootleggers – smugglers (from Canada & Caribbean) in Chicago controlled by Al Capone – rise of organized crime (expanded to prostitution, gambling, & narcotics), murder rates rose significantly Police & city officials often bribed to look other way & not enough $ to enforce it effectively Opposition & Repeal: growing crime rates turned public against it, Northern Democrats opposed it “wets”, Depression raise taxes & use $ elsewhere. 21 st Amendment (1933) ended the “Noble Experiment”
1920 s Nativism Causes: anti-foreign mood from WWI, Red Scare, conservative Republicans, isolationists, job concerns Immigration Act of 1921 set up quota system =annual immigration less than 3% of nationality from 1910 National Origins Act of 1924, lowered to 2% of 1890 (why?) & banned immigration from East Asia 1929 Immigration law limit annual total to 150,000 Canadians & Mexicans were exempt: 500,000 migrants from Mexico in decade Rise of New KKK: support in strong in Midwest (Indiana) in South (Texas), support from lower- middle class white Protestants, target: blacks, Jews, Catholics, foreigners, Communists, “100% Pure Americanism”, headed by Grand Dragon David Stephenson (convicted of rape & murder in 1925) Sacco & Vanzetti case: convicted of robbery & murder in 1921, executed in Election: Democrat Al Smith was attacked & nearly mobbed for being 1 st Catholic candidate defeated by Republican Herbert Hoover
1920 s Foreign Policy Republicans effort to cut budget pushed disarmament & avoid conflict Washington Conference of 1921 led by Sec. of State Hughes naval reductions: Five-Power Treaty reduce largest battleships at ratio: US & GB 5, Japan 3, France & Italy 1.67, Four-Power Treaty: respect territory in Pacific, Nine-Power Treaty: respect Open Door Dawes Plan – “circular loans”: Britain & France owed $10-11 billion in war debts to US banks, Charles Dawes plan in 1924 loaned billion to Germany to pay off debts (collapsed in 1929) Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928: due to pacifist pressure (Jane Addams won Nobel Peace Prize in 1931) Sec. of State Frank Kellogg international pact to outlaw war for nationalist ends signed by most of world (defense OK & no means of enforcement) $ expansion in Latin America: troops in decline (removed from D.R.), but investment doubled “Red Line Agreement” 1928 U.S. negotiated right for U.S. oil companies to drill in Iraq