Colonial Society Social Classes Mobility – England – Rigid class structure -> family, tradition – America – Opportunity to move social position based on occupation &wealth New England & Middle Colonies more so Southern Colonies Less so Nobility Middle Class Un skilled Laborers Gentry Skilled Artisans Laborers Slaves
The Great Awakening Revived interest in religion George Whitefield & Jonathan Edwards Touched all people – “ sober and vicious, high and low, rich and poor, wise and unwise” Free and enslaved attended revivals Pulled colonists together with a set of common beliefs
The Enlightenment The Age of Reason John Locke (Englishman) – The purpose of government was to protect people’s natural rights – Life, liberty, and ownership of property – If government failed to provide for these rights, then it should be changed – Became the basis for for protest and revolution – Declaration of Independence: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, Respect for Science & curiosity about natural world – Ben Franklin flying a kite to investigate the nature of lightening invented the lighenting rod
Page 83 Graphic Organizer Great Awakening The Enlightenment 1. Revived interest in religion 2. Promoted sense of commonality 3. Reinforced common Christian values 1. Revived interest in religion 2. Promoted sense of commonality 3. Reinforced common Christian values 1. Shaped colonists’ views on government. 2. Provided basis for protest and revolution 3. Increased interest in science and natural world 1. Shaped colonists’ views on government. 2. Provided basis for protest and revolution 3. Increased interest in science and natural world
Colonial Writers Pioneer and travel stories – useful for financial backers promoting immigration and investments in the colonies Religious books and poetry Anne Dudley Bradstreet Phillis Wheatley – Enslaved as a child – Treated as a member – A family member – Taught with family child to read and write
On Being Brought From Africa to America – Phillis Wheatley "Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, Taught my benighted soul to understand That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too: Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. Some view our sable race with scornful eye, "Their colour is a diabolic die." Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain, May be refin'd and join th'angelic train.
Upon a Fit of Sickness, Anno. 1632 Anne Dudley Bradstreet O Bubble blast, how long can'st last? That always art a breaking, No sooner blown, but dead and gone, Ev'n as a word that's speaking. O whil'st I live, this grace me give, I doing good may be, Then death's arrest I shall count best, because it's thy decree.
Newspapers & Political Writing Newspapers shared and discussed at inns Ben Franklin’s Poor Richard’s Almanac – Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise – There is no gain without pains Political pamphlets – e.g. “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine – Argument: It was absurd for an island to rule a continent. America was not a "British nation"; but was composed of influences and peoples from all of Europe. Even if Britain were the "mother country" of America, that made her actions all the more horrendous, for no mother would harm her children so brutally.mother country Being a part of Britain would drag America into unnecessary European wars, and keep her from the international commerce at which America excelled.European wars The distance between the two nations made governing the colonies from England unwieldy. If some wrong were to be petitioned to Parliament, it would take a year before the colonies received a response.Parliament The New World was discovered shortly before the Reformation. The Puritans believed that God wanted to give them a safe haven from the persecution of British rule.New WorldReformationPuritanssafe haven Britain ruled the colonies for her own benefit, and did not consider the best interests of the colonists in governing Britain.own benefit
Key Themes Religious Revival “usness” Interest in Science and inventiveness Political Interest in and discussions about the nature of government Religious Freedom: Constitutional based, democratic government; The Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders of CT, and VA House of Burgesses, and Town Meetings were all very early examples in which common men (not nobility) were able to participate in self-govering activities. American Exceptionalism: This is a belief that our nation is unique, special and exceptional in all the world and across time. Still aboard the ship Arbella in 1630, Winthrop admonished the future Massachusetts Bay colonists in a sermon that their new community would be "as a city upon a hill", watched by the world — Winthrop was alluding to a parable in Matthew In Matthew 5:14, where Jesus tells his listeners, "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden." Equality - While Europe was still using a rigid, pyramidal class system with the king on top, nobility just below, then merchants and commoners/ peasants on the bottom, the PA Quakers believed in equality for all people – including women, Native American and enslaved Africans. In fact, the Quakers were very anti-slavery and would become strong abolitionists. The New England and Middle Colonies would outlaw slavery; whereas, the Southern colonies would differ in this cultural aspect. The South would adopt the European hierarchical class system with the planters on the top, then free whites below, and slaves on the bottom.