Presentation on theme: " World History Unit 4. Table of Contents End of Medieval Europe -Crusades -Great Famine -Black Death -Hundred Years War -Great Schism Renaissance Art."— Presentation transcript:
World History Unit 4
Table of Contents End of Medieval Europe -Crusades -Great Famine -Black Death -Hundred Years War -Great Schism Renaissance Art -Giotto -Masaccio -Leonardo Da Vinci -Michelangelo Architecture Scholarship and Literature -Niccolo Machiavelli -Nicholas Copernicus -Galileo Galilei -Johann Gutenberg Protestant Reformation -Martin Luther -John Calvin -Catholic Church Reaction -Holy Roman Empire -England
Several different factors led to the end of Medieval Europe. People lost faith in the church and knights died out due to better technology.
The Crusades Islam had spread rapidly, making tension between Muslims and Christians. A series of military expeditions against Islamic power in the Near East. Lasted, off and on, from about 1095 to 1221
Great Famine Unusually heavy rains make for too much water. Too much water leads to crops spoiling. Livestock drowned Millions of people ended up dying. This led many to question the Church – why was this happening?
The Black Death Rats with fleas carrying the disease entered Europe on trading ships. 25 million people died in Europe. People were buried in mass graves with no blessing from the Church. This created a labor shortage and led to many people moving into towns to look for work.
The Hundred Years’ War The French king died without an heir. The King of England claimed the throne. New weapons were used for the first time. Gunpowder and cannons were brought from China. Knights would eventually become obsolete due to this.
The Great Schism The Catholic Church was starting to lose authority. The Church had several different Popes who moved the Papacy around. Eventually the church split. Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox
The word basically means “rebirth” This was a period of intellectual and artistic creativity. The Renaissance began in Italy in part. The trade routes between Europe and Asia made Italy a center for commerce. GflkQ8 ZcoR0
New styles of art began to immerge during this period.
Giotto Giotto started using new painting techniques like depth and shading. He showed emotions and gestures.
Masaccio Masaccio helped to develop the rules on perspective. Using calculations and guidelines to show things recede in the distance.
Leonardo Da Vinci Sculpture, inventor, and painter He discovered how to use shadowing and blurred lines to make subjects appear lifelike.
Michelangelo Sculptures and paintings Giant mosaic on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Changes in Art
In Florence they had competitions among architects. Filippo Brunelleschi was the winner. He designed the cathedral in Florence – largest church in the world at that time.
Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote a book The Prince which was a guidebook on how to get and keep political power. Whatever is necessary… Rulers took these words to heart – raising taxes, creating armies, hiring soldiers…etc.
Nicholas Copernicus Concluded the Earth orbited the sun. His work was banned by the Church since they believed the Earth was the center of the universe.
Galileo Galilei His discoveries strengthened his belief in Copernicus’ theory. He was told he could no longer publically state that the Earth moved around the sun. He was later found guilty at trial and confined to his home.
Johann Gutenberg Developed a printing press in This allowed for the mass production of printed books for the first time. This encouraged the spread of new ideas. More people began to learn to read.
New knowledge and widespread corruption led to new challenges to the Pope’s authority.
Martin Luther The Catholic church started selling indulgences, or pardons. This brought a big revenue for the church. In 1517 Martin Luther posted Ninety-Five Theses on a church door in Germany This challenged the Pope’s right to sell indulgences. He valued faith in God and he believed that people should read and understand the Bible for himself or herself to achieve this faith. He was excommunicated by the Pope.
Martin Luther He then burned the Pope’s decrees. He was then banned as an outlaw. He established the Lutheran Church. He translated the New Testament into German. He wrote pamphlets to persuade others.
John Calvin Started a new Protestant Church in Geneva. He believed since God was “all- knowing” he predestined who would be saved and who would be lost. Only the “elect” could be saved. Encouraged hard work and a strict moral code.
Catholic Church Reaction Made limited reforms and curbed earlier abuses. Catholic Counter-Reformation Redefined Catholic beliefs and ended the sale of indulgences Banned Protestant books and established a court – Inquisition - to punish heretics.
Holy Roman Empire France, Italy, Spain and Southern Germany remained Catholic for the most part. This area was referred to as the Holy Roman Empire.
Political Impact At first England remained Catholic. When the Pope refused Henry VIII’s divorce he broke with the church and turned to Protestantism. He declared himself the head of the English Church in the Act of Supremacy. Wars between Catholics and Protestants started in the 1520s and lasted more than 100 years. Thirty Years War
Queen Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII, mother was executed – so she was considered illegitimate Established an English Protestant church Church of England
Because the spring equinox was tied to the date of Easter, the Catholic Church considered the seasonal drift in the date of Easter undesirable The Julius calendar was reformed.
Julius Caesar introduced leap years in the Roman Empire. His leap years happened in every year divisible by four, which threw off the calendar. Pope Gregory XIII introduced a new calendar, with a revised leap year, in The earth takes days to rotate around the sun. 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds If a day wasn’t added on February 29 nearly every 4 years, six hours would be lost off the calendar every year After 100 years, the calendar would be off by approximately 24 days