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 World History Unit 4. Table of Contents End of Medieval Europe -Crusades -Great Famine -Black Death -Hundred Years War -Great Schism Renaissance Art.

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Presentation on theme: " World History Unit 4. Table of Contents End of Medieval Europe -Crusades -Great Famine -Black Death -Hundred Years War -Great Schism Renaissance Art."— Presentation transcript:

1  World History Unit 4

2 Table of Contents End of Medieval Europe -Crusades -Great Famine -Black Death -Hundred Years War -Great Schism Renaissance Art -Giotto -Masaccio -Leonardo Da Vinci -Michelangelo Architecture Scholarship and Literature -Niccolo Machiavelli -Nicholas Copernicus -Galileo Galilei -Johann Gutenberg Protestant Reformation -Martin Luther -John Calvin -Catholic Church Reaction -Holy Roman Empire -England

3  Several different factors led to the end of Medieval Europe.  People lost faith in the church and knights died out due to better technology.

4 The Crusades  Islam had spread rapidly, making tension between Muslims and Christians.  A series of military expeditions against Islamic power in the Near East.  Lasted, off and on, from about 1095 to 1221

5 Great Famine 1313-1322  Unusually heavy rains make for too much water. Too much water leads to crops spoiling.  Livestock drowned  Millions of people ended up dying.  This led many to question the Church – why was this happening?

6 The Black Death 1347-1351  Rats with fleas carrying the disease entered Europe on trading ships.  25 million people died in Europe.  People were buried in mass graves with no blessing from the Church.  This created a labor shortage and led to many people moving into towns to look for work.

7 The Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453  The French king died without an heir.  The King of England claimed the throne.  New weapons were used for the first time.  Gunpowder and cannons were brought from China.  Knights would eventually become obsolete due to this.

8 The Great Schism 1378-1417  The Catholic Church was starting to lose authority.  The Church had several different Popes who moved the Papacy around.  Eventually the church split.  Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox

9  The word basically means “rebirth”  This was a period of intellectual and artistic creativity.  The Renaissance began in Italy in part.  The trade routes between Europe and Asia made Italy a center for commerce. GflkQ8 ZcoR0

10  New styles of art began to immerge during this period.

11 Giotto  Giotto started using new painting techniques like depth and shading.  He showed emotions and gestures.

12 Masaccio  Masaccio helped to develop the rules on perspective.  Using calculations and guidelines to show things recede in the distance.

13 Leonardo Da Vinci  Sculpture, inventor, and painter  He discovered how to use shadowing and blurred lines to make subjects appear lifelike.

14 Michelangelo  Sculptures and paintings  Giant mosaic on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

15 Changes in Art





20  In Florence they had competitions among architects.  Filippo Brunelleschi was the winner.  He designed the cathedral in Florence – largest church in the world at that time.


22 Niccolo Machiavelli  Wrote a book The Prince which was a guidebook on how to get and keep political power.  Whatever is necessary…  Rulers took these words to heart – raising taxes, creating armies, hiring soldiers…etc.

23 Nicholas Copernicus  Concluded the Earth orbited the sun.  His work was banned by the Church since they believed the Earth was the center of the universe.

24 Galileo Galilei  His discoveries strengthened his belief in Copernicus’ theory.  He was told he could no longer publically state that the Earth moved around the sun.  He was later found guilty at trial and confined to his home.

25 Johann Gutenberg  Developed a printing press in 1450.  This allowed for the mass production of printed books for the first time.  This encouraged the spread of new ideas.  More people began to learn to read.

26  New knowledge and widespread corruption led to new challenges to the Pope’s authority.

27 Martin Luther  The Catholic church started selling indulgences, or pardons.  This brought a big revenue for the church.  In 1517 Martin Luther posted Ninety-Five Theses on a church door in Germany  This challenged the Pope’s right to sell indulgences.  He valued faith in God and he believed that people should read and understand the Bible for himself or herself to achieve this faith.  He was excommunicated by the Pope.

28 Martin Luther  He then burned the Pope’s decrees.  He was then banned as an outlaw.  He established the Lutheran Church.  He translated the New Testament into German.  He wrote pamphlets to persuade others.

29 John Calvin  Started a new Protestant Church in Geneva.  He believed since God was “all- knowing” he predestined who would be saved and who would be lost.  Only the “elect” could be saved.  Encouraged hard work and a strict moral code.

30 Catholic Church Reaction  Made limited reforms and curbed earlier abuses.  Catholic Counter-Reformation  Redefined Catholic beliefs and ended the sale of indulgences  Banned Protestant books and established a court – Inquisition - to punish heretics.

31 Holy Roman Empire  France, Italy, Spain and Southern Germany remained Catholic for the most part.  This area was referred to as the Holy Roman Empire.

32 Political Impact  At first England remained Catholic.  When the Pope refused Henry VIII’s divorce he broke with the church and turned to Protestantism.  He declared himself the head of the English Church in the Act of Supremacy.  Wars between Catholics and Protestants started in the 1520s and lasted more than 100 years.  Thirty Years War 1618-1648

33 Queen Elizabeth I  Daughter of Henry VIII, mother was executed – so she was considered illegitimate  Established an English Protestant church  Church of England

34  Because the spring equinox was tied to the date of Easter, the Catholic Church considered the seasonal drift in the date of Easter undesirable  The Julius calendar was reformed.

35  Julius Caesar introduced leap years in the Roman Empire.  His leap years happened in every year divisible by four, which threw off the calendar.  Pope Gregory XIII introduced a new calendar, with a revised leap year, in 1582.  The earth takes 365.242199 days to rotate around the sun.  365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds  If a day wasn’t added on February 29 nearly every 4 years, six hours would be lost off the calendar every year  After 100 years, the calendar would be off by approximately 24 days

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