Presentation on theme: "The War Begins Chapter 16 Day 1. Fort Sumter - Charleston Harbor, SC **Union troops were in control of the Fort** – occupied it after SC secession –"— Presentation transcript:
The War Begins Chapter 16 Day 1
Fort Sumter - Charleston Harbor, SC **Union troops were in control of the Fort** – occupied it after SC secession – lone federal outpost in SC Confederate troops surrounded the fort with guns and artillery Lincoln resupplied the Fort **Confederates demanded federal troops evacuate – Major Robert Anderson refused** **These shots mark the beginning of the Civil War**
“There can be no neutrals in this war, only patriots or traitors.” -Stephen Douglas
Who has the advantage: North & South?
NorthSouth Advantages & Disadvantages Population: 21 million 2x as many railroad tracks as South Much wealthier “The Yankees’ most bloodthirsty achievements consist of harpooning whales…” Population: 9 million (3.5 million are slaves) ½ as many railroad tracks as North Produce ¼ of the wealth of NY alone in all of the South Many men had already “seen action during the Mexican War and looked forward to more” Tallapoosa Thrashers, Chickasaw Desperadoes, and Cherokee Lincoln Killers
“Each side thought the other would collapse within ninety days…” Given what you know, who is at the advantage?? Defend!!!
UnionConfederacy Major Leaders Abe Lincoln – President General George B McClellan General Ulysses S. Grant (kicked out of the army originally) Jefferson Davis – President General Robert E. Lee (turned down Union) General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
**First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)** July 21, 1861 **The first major battle of the Civil War – Confed. Victory** Fought 25 mi. outside of Washington D.C. – along Bull Run Creek near Manassas junction – vital RR In excitement to see a “real, live, battle” **citizens in the area came to watch** the fight unfold
First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) July 21, 1861 Initially, Union troops thought they had won General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – inspired C troops Standing like a stone wall C troops reinforced – U troops NOT reinforced Union retreat – C victory! 4,500 casualties
“The Southern army was nearly as unprepared for its victory as its foes had been for their defeat” ”The Civil War” by Geoffrey C. Ward
War in Virginia Lincoln was shocked at how poorly trained the Union army was – enlisted 100,000 additional troops to serve 3 yrs. (Army of the Potomac) Davis was overjoyed – “we have taught them a lesson in their invasion of the sacred soil of Virginia” Some thought the Confederacy had already won the Civil War after the victory at Manassas
McClellan takes charge Gen. George B. McClellan (hesitant, careful, vain) put in charge of Army of the Potomac - Union troops in DC by Lincoln Brought discipline, order within the troops “They received him with loud shouts, by the eager uproar…they believe in him”
Second Battle of Bull Run August 1862 Lincoln frustrated by McClellan’s inaction/stupidity (in L’s opinion) Gen. Pope’s forces and McClellan’s forces told to meet in Richmond *Before forces could meet, Jackson attacked Pope’s Union forces* Day 1: stalemate Day 2: many casualties Day 3: C victory; U retreat **MAJOR victory for C**
Battle of Antietam “The bloodiest day in American History” September 17, 1862 Activity As a group read the Battle of Antietam Summary on page 519 and in article. Take notes in Graphic Organizer!!
Discuss with your group: Where did the battle of Antietam take place? What happened? Who was in charge of each army? What is significant about the battle of Antietam? How many casualties did each side suffer?
Union Naval Strategy North had most of the US Navy’s fleet Experienced naval officers ANACONDA PLAN!!!!
Union Naval Strategy
The War So Far Reasons a Union victory was Needed: Lincoln wanted to show that his government was strong and could support the proclamation. Lincoln didn’t want it to appear that his government was weak http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =y82uZ7oX2tE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =y82uZ7oX2tE What is the war about? Preserving the Union or Freeing the Slaves?
The Emancipation Problem Lincoln’s first challenge was that the U.S. Constitution did not prohibit slavery. Individual states could outlaw slavery, but not the U.S. Government. Lincoln used background as a lawyer to help solve problem
Lincoln’s solution How did the South view slaves? Property What happens to property that is confiscated in war? The property captured (called contraband) belongs to the army that captured it and its government. War became as much about preserving the Union as it was about freeing the slaves!
The Emancipation Proclamation Victory at Antietam allowed Lincoln to issue it Military order to free slaves in states controlled by the Confederacy More symbolic than practical – did not necessarily stop slavery HUGE morale booster for the UNION – this is what you’re fighting for!!
Reaction to Proclamation Abolitionists and African Americans rejoiced! Slaves fled to Union camps for protections Loss of slaves in the south crippled South’s ability to wage war.
Opposition to the War
Grant in Charge in the West General Ulysses S. Grant grew impatient with McClellan – WANTED TO BE ON THE OFFENSIVE! Focus of western theater was to take control of Mississippi River – why?? Cut off food supply, means of communication, and transportation.
Siege of Vicksburg Farragut and his Union troops approached Vicksburg, Mississippi Farragut & Grant’s troops join GOAL= starve the city into surrender!! Troops began to cut off city and shell it Confederates surrendered; Grant immediately sent food into the C soldiers and civilians “the fate of the Confederacy was sealed when Vicksburg fell” “We are utterly cut off from the world, surrounded by a circle of fire.”
Gettysburg Address Primary Source 1.According to Lincoln, why is the nation fighting the Civil War? 2.Who makes the ground Holy at the Gettysburg Cemetery? Why? 3.“The world with little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.” What do you think he means by this quote? 4.What is the “great task” according to Lincoln? 5.Look at the last 5 lines – what is Lincoln’s hope or goal for