2Fort Sumter - Charleston Harbor, SC **Union troops were in control of the Fort** – occupied it after SC secession – lone federal outpost in SCConfederate troops surrounded the fort with guns and artilleryLincoln resupplied the Fort**Confederates demanded federal troops evacuate – Major Robert Anderson refused****These shots mark the beginning of the Civil War**
6Advantages & Disadvantages NorthSouthPopulation: 21 million2x as many railroad tracks as SouthMuch wealthier“The Yankees’ most bloodthirsty achievements consist of harpooning whales…”Population: 9 million (3.5 million are slaves)½ as many railroad tracks as NorthProduce ¼ of the wealth of NY alone in all of the SouthMany men had already “seen action during the Mexican War and looked forward to more”Tallapoosa Thrashers, Chickasaw Desperadoes, and Cherokee Lincoln Killers
7“Each side thought the other would collapse within ninety days…” Given what you know, who is at the advantage?? Defend!!!
8Major Leaders Union Confederacy Abe Lincoln – President General George B McClellanGeneral Ulysses S. Grant (kicked out of the army originally)Jefferson Davis – PresidentGeneral Robert E. Lee (turned down Union)General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
9**First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)** July 21, 1861 **The first major battle of the Civil War – Confed. Victory**Fought 25 mi. outside of Washington D.C. – along Bull Run Creek near Manassas junction – vital RRIn excitement to see a “real, live, battle” **citizens in the area came to watch** the fight unfoldAfter initial Union success, the Confederates counter-attacked and the disorganized Union troops withdrew to Washington D.C.In excitement to see a “real, live, battle” citizens in the area came to watch the fight unfold. None realized what a real battle might look like. On the army’s retreat to Washington the roads were full of carriages as the viewers retreated from the horror as well.The Battle of First Manassas made both sides realize that the war would be longer and bloodier than anticipated.
10First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) July 21, 1861 Initially, Union troops thought they had wonGeneral Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson – inspired C troopsStanding like a stone wallC troops reinforced – U troops NOT reinforcedUnion retreat – C victory! 4,500 casualtiesAfter initial Union success, the Confederates counter-attacked and the disorganized Union troops withdrew to Washington D.C.In excitement to see a “real, live, battle” citizens in the area came to watch the fight unfold. None realized what a real battle might look like. On the army’s retreat to Washington the roads were full of carriages as the viewers retreated from the horror as well.The Battle of First Manassas made both sides realize that the war would be longer and bloodier than anticipated.
11”The Civil War” by Geoffrey C. Ward “The Southern army was nearly as unprepared for its victory as its foes had been for their defeat””The Civil War” by Geoffrey C. Ward
12War in VirginiaLincoln was shocked at how poorly trained the Union army was – enlisted 100,000 additional troops to serve 3 yrs. (Army of the Potomac)Davis was overjoyed – “we have taught them a lesson in their invasion of the sacred soil of Virginia”Some thought the Confederacy had already won the Civil War after the victory at Manassas
13McClellan takes charge Gen. George B. McClellan (hesitant, careful, vain) put in charge of Army of the Potomac - Union troops in DC by LincolnBrought discipline, order within the troops“They received him with loud shouts, by the eager uproar…they believe in him”
14Second Battle of Bull Run August 1862 Lincoln frustrated by McClellan’s inaction/stupidity (in L’s opinion)Gen. Pope’s forces and McClellan’s forces told to meet in Richmond*Before forces could meet, Jackson attacked Pope’s Union forces*Day 1: stalemateDay 2: many casualtiesDay 3: C victory; U retreat**MAJOR victory for C**
15Battle of Antietam “The bloodiest day in American History” September 17, 1862 Activity As a group read the Battle of Antietam Summary on page 519 and in article. Take notes in Graphic Organizer!!
16Discuss with your group: Where did the battle of Antietam take place?What happened?Who was in charge of each army?What is significant about the battle of Antietam?How many casualties did each side suffer?
17Union Naval Strategy North had most of the US Navy’s fleet Experienced naval officersANACONDA PLAN!!!!
19The War So Far What is the war about? Preserving the Union or Freeing the Slaves?Reasons a Union victory was Needed:Lincoln wanted to show that his government was strong and could support the proclamation.Lincoln didn’t want it to appear that his government was weakBefore freeing the slaves could be added to the war aims Lincoln felt strongly that the Union needed a victory.
20The Emancipation Problem Lincoln’s first challenge was that the U.S. Constitution did not prohibit slavery.Individual states could outlaw slavery, but not the U.S. Government.Lincoln used background as a lawyer to help solve problem
21Lincoln’s solution How did the South view slaves? PropertyWhat happens to property that is confiscated in war?The property captured (called contraband) belongs to the army that captured it and its government.War became as much about preserving the Union as it was about freeing the slaves!
22The Emancipation Proclamation Victory at Antietam allowed Lincoln to issue itMilitary order to free slaves in states controlled by the ConfederacyMore symbolic than practical – did not necessarily stop slaveryHUGE morale booster for the UNION – this is what you’re fighting for!!
23Reaction to Proclamation Abolitionists and African Americans rejoiced!Slaves fled to Union camps for protectionsLoss of slaves in the south crippled South’s ability to wage war.
25Grant in Charge in the West General Ulysses S. Grant grew impatient with McClellan – WANTED TO BE ON THE OFFENSIVE!Focus of western theater was to take control of Mississippi River – why??Cut off food supply, means of communication, and transportation.
26Siege of Vicksburg“We are utterly cut off from the world, surrounded by a circle of fire.”Farragut and his Union troops approached Vicksburg, MississippiFarragut & Grant’s troops joinGOAL= starve the city into surrender!!Troops began to cut off city and shell itConfederates surrendered; Grant immediately sent food into the C soldiers and civilians“the fate of the Confederacy was sealed when Vicksburg fell”
27Gettysburg Address Primary Source According to Lincoln, why is the nation fighting the Civil War?Who makes the ground Holy at the Gettysburg Cemetery? Why?“The world with little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.” What do you think he means by this quote?What is the “great task” according to Lincoln?Look at the last 5 lines – what is Lincoln’s hope or goal for