Presentation on theme: "C.1750 – c. 1900 CE Ch 13, pg. 151 Source: AP World History Crash Course by J.P. Harmon."— Presentation transcript:
c.1750 – c CE Ch 13, pg. 151 Source: AP World History Crash Course by J.P. Harmon
Most dramatic change since the Neolithic Revolution
Western Europe’s governments Richest in the world (thank you Latin American gold and silver) $$ invested part of this into prizes to inventors Resulted in more efficient ways to: Transport goods Grow crops Defeat enemies Begins in Britain
The right type of natural resources iron coal good soil fast moving rivers natural harbors Products exported back to colonial consumers Belgium, Germany, France had similar conditions and soon followed Britain Geography
Social mobility possible with reality of invention “a nation of tinkerers” Banks loaned $$ (££)to inventors Economic and Social Mobility
Britain had large number of skilled workers familiar with use of metal tools Contributed to the development of machines Enclosure Movement forced many farm workers to cities to look for work Workforce
Enclosed lands today
ONLY Western Europe had ALL the necessary factors Incentive Materials Skilled labor Africa had more natural resources but not stable governments Ming China strong government and economy but not resources India & China tradition of invention but not the incentive Why Britain? Why not … anywhere else?
Machine to mass produce cloth and thread Faster and cheaper cloth production Machines so large they needed special buildings factories Waterwheels to provide power Mechanization of Textile Production
Invented in Britain Made waterpower obsolete Factories free to be build away from water Connection to machines made production infinitely better The Steam Engine
Technological changes came in rapid succession Invention of the cotton gin, took cotton production to a new level Steam boat made sail transportation obsolete Locomotive The Steam Engine
Coal was initial fuel Later on in the 19 th century petroleum was used more and more Development of the internal combustion engine Fossil Fuels
Advancements in production of steel was lighter, stronger and more flexible Steel factories centered around iron and coal mines “king of metals” of the industrial revolution Great Britain first; US, Japan, Russia to follow Steel
Rapid changes made in “western” regions affected the economy and everyday life Movement of workers from rural areas to cites in search of work due to Agricultural Revolution (loss of job) or desire of change Rise of wages caused factory work to be “man’s work” When factories became more efficient they required fewer workers (women and children no longer needed) But children still used in agriculture and mining Western Europe and the U.S.
Wages rising brings about a new social class Middle class Group lies between rich and poor Always existed but grew exponentially as Ind Rev grew Traditional family structure emerges Women expected to marry and stay home raising children Urban families had fewer children that farm families Single women entered employment as teachers Western Europe and the U.S.
Closer to 20 th century women began to enter the business world as secretaries and telephone operators Women allowed to vote only after WWI (1918) Fewer children required in factories as laborers caused gov’ts in the “west” to establish compulsory education laws Western Europe and the U.S.
Cities developed and grew bigger than ever in history Mass migration to cities caused deplorable conditions Overcrowded housing Pollution High crime rates These conditions lead to sweeping changes in gov’t policies Western Europe and the U.S.
Art and literature changed as well Left the Romantic era of art and shifted to Realism Invention of the camera Development of artistic style of Impressionism Deliberately unfocused scenes of nature Charles Dickens Oliver Twist David Copperfield A Christmas Carol Western Europe and the U.S.
Development of the Domestic System of Production Domestic system developed in England Late 1600’s – late 1800’s Domestic system of production – “putting out” system: – Businesspeople delivered raw materials to workers’ homes – Workers manufactured goods from these raw materials in their homes (typically articles of clothing) – Businesspeople picked up finished goods and paid workers wages based on number of items Domestic system could not keep up with demand
“Proletarianization” During the century, factory workers underwent a process of proletarianization (i.e., they lost control of the means of production). Factory owners provided the financial capital to construct the factory, to purchase the machinery, and to secure the raw materials. The factory workers merely exchanged their labor for wages.
Family Structures Changed With the decline of the domestic system and the rise of the factory system, family life changed. At first, the entire family, including the children, worked in the factory, just as they had at home. Later, family life became fragmented (the father worked in the factory, the mother handled domestic chores, the children went to school).
Family as a Unit of Consumption In short, the European family changed from being a unit of production and consumption to being a unit of consumption alone.
Gender-Determined Roles That transformation prepared the way for gender-determined roles. Women came to be associated with domestic duties, such as housekeeping, food preparation, child rearing and nurturing, and household management. The man came to be associated almost exclusively with breadwinning.
Global Markets demand machine-made goods Large banks loan $$ for foreign investments British East India & Dutch East India – first 2 United Fruit Corporation - bananas Exchange of goods & money caused economies to grow fast Established gold standard for world currencies
2 nd half of 19 th century pace of advancement sped up Focus now on gas or diesel engine rather than steam More inventions related to electrical systems, scientific discoveries and medicine All inventions could be applied to warfare From Steam to Gas
Invention of the telegraph in 1840s telegraph cable laid under Atlantic from Britain to North America late 1850s By 1870s across the Pacific 1902 entire British Empire connected Telephone in 1876 Popular because it required no special training and was right there in the home Radio developing Communication
Steam boat and steam train Electric trolley car Subway systems Automobile invented in GERMANY in 1880s Mostly experimental device Transportation
Modern chemistry began in this era systematic studies of chemical compounds and composition of matter Developing compounds in labs Fertilizers Science and Medicine
Government oversight of programs to provide citizens with healthier lives Clean drinking water Advances in medicine Smallpox and rabies vaccinations Sterilization of surgical instruments Use of anesthetics during surgery Aspirin Science and Medicine
Science and Faith cross Charles Darwin Natural selection Humans and apes have similar characteristics Begun furious debates about the nature of humanity Survival of the fittest in the animal kingdom transferred to human civilization SOCIAL DARWINISM Wherein the superior races must naturally defeat inferior ones Science and Medicine
Socialism All about the working class – Depended on the grievances of/against the working class Karl Marx (Marxism) – According to Marx: “History was shaped by the available means of production and who controlled those means” The middle class had won the battle because they owned land; they had a strong hold on the lands available to people, therefore they controlled the means of production. The “enemy” then, was the property-less proletariat (lower class) – Marx told the working class that their wages were exploitive and unfair. – Urged the need for violent action
Karl Marx Scientific socialism Economics really a struggle between the “haves” (upper class and merchants) and the “have nots” (proletariat working class.) Advocated a workers’ revolution to replace private ownership of property with cooperative ownership. Led to system of Communism.
Socialism - continued The rise of socialism scared people of “Western” society Germany (led by Otto von Bismark) became largest single political force by 1900 Major industrial strikes and the forming of unions rose quickly Socialist parties would ally themselves with other moderate groups to strengthen themselves In the end, Marx’s vision was incorrect; success could be achieved by peaceful democratic means and NOT only by violent revolts
Economists of the Industrial Revolution Adam Smith: advocated laissez- faire economics. No government regulation of business. A free market will produce more goods at lower prices, making them affordable by everyone. The basis of Capitalism. Thomas Malthus: Population will outpace the food supply David Ricardo: Poor having too many children, thus leading to a high labor supply and lower wages.
Adam Smith Wealth of Nations (1776) “One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head;... and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations.”
Labor Reform Labor unions Unions use collective bargaining and strikes to push for reforms Britain attempted to outlaw labor unions Reform laws Combination Acts of 1825 – Legalizes labor unions Factory Act of 1833 – Child Labor Mines Act of 1842 – Women and children cannot work underground
Democratic Reforms Great Britain Reform Bill of 1832 Chartist Movement Working class suffrage in 1867 Rural laborers in 1884 United States In 1800 property was requirement to vote All white males could vote by mid- 1850s 15 th Amendment (1870)
Feminist Movements Goals Sought legal and economic rights Women’s suffrage Leadership Middle class women Emmeline Pankhurst Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony English women gain the right to vote 1918 U.S. in 1920 with the 19 th amendment
GENDER ISSUES CHANGES Poor women had to work in factories and still take care of family needs Wealthy women stayed home and had less power outside the home in industrial age Middle Class women became involved in reform movements (abolition, suffrage) CONTINUITIES Women still had family responsibilities Society still very patriarchal
US quick to follow GB with the invention of the cotton gin Single crop plantations (cotton, tobacco) and slavery flourished Northeast textile factories; south raw materials production Railroads Industrialization Spreads: United States
South’s loss to North in American Civil War and abolition of slavery turning point in government’s power to encourage industrial build-up Trans-continental Railroad By 1900 US world’s largest steel producer US Steel world’s 1 st billion $ company Industrialization Spreads: United States
Commodore Perry and the forced opening of Japan to world trade Japan responded by embracing societal, political and industrial change Used western technology to specialize in silk textiles Differing from western: Japanese government heavily involved in industry Industrialization Spreads: Japan
JAPAN & THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Meiji Restoration US industry, technology amazed, scared Japanese Warships, weapons showed Japanese vulnerability Industrialization in Japan Promoted by government Many monetary incentives Way to avoid Western encroachment Food production subsidized by government Hired foreign experts to build modern industries First models built by westerners, often abroad Next models built by Japanese in Japan Borrowed heavily in knowledge from Great Britain Created new industries Emphasized heavy industry: iron, steel, power Light industry: clothing followed Opened technical institutes and universities Government-owned businesses privatized (zaibatsu) Old samurai families frequently bought these industries Came to dominate transportation, weaponry, electronics Industrialization fueled trade, imperialism Japan had no raw materials, needed to trade Influenced Japanese desire for colonies, empire Japan was the most industrialized land in Asia by 1900
Russia’s progress NOT like US and Japan– slow to transform to industrialization Russian gov’t primary focus was to support the elite and the use of serfdom Russia frees serfs and seeks foreign investment in industry Becomes the top producer of steel Regardless, Russian economy still more like 15 th century with most peasants still based in agriculture Industrialization Spread: Russia
1. Russia was an absolute monarchy, with the greatest state control of anywhere in the Western world a. in 1900: no national parliament, no legal political parties, no nationwide elections b. dominated by a titled nobility (many highly Westernized) c. until 1861, most Russians were serfs 2. in Russia, the state, not society, usually initiated change a. Peter the Great (r. 1689–1725) was an early example of “transformation from above” b. Catherine the Great (r. 1762–1796) also worked to Europeanize Russian culture and intellectual life c. the state directed freeing of the serfs in 1861 d. the state set out to improve Russia’s economic and industrial backwardness
3. Russian Industrial Revolution was launched by the 1890s a. focused on railroads and heavy industry b. substantial foreign investment c. industry was concentrated in a few major cities d. fewer but larger factories than was typical in Western Europe 4. growing middle class disliked Russia’s deep conservatism, sought a greater role in political life a. but they were dependent on the state for contracts and jobs b. also relied on the state to suppress worker radicalism
5. Russian working class (only about 5 percent of the population) rapidly radicalized a. harsh conditions b. no legal outlet for grievances c. large-scale strikes 6. Marxist socialism appealed to some educated Russians, gave them hope for the future a. founded the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party (1898) b. got involved in workers’ education, union organizing, and revolutionary action 7. major insurrection broke out in 1905, after defeat in war by Japan a. in Moscow and St. Petersburg, workers went on strike, created their own representative councils (“soviets”) b. peasant uprisings, student demonstrations c. non-Russian nationalities revolted d. military mutiny e. brutally suppressed, but forced the tsar’s regime to make reforms 8. limited political reforms failed to pacify the radicals or bring stability a. growing belief that only a revolution would help b. World War I provided the revolutionary moment 9. Russian Revolution broke out in 1917 a. brought the most radical of the socialist groups to power—the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) ` b. only in Russia did industrialization lead to violent social revolution
Limited impact of Ind Rev Social structures and gender roles continued status quo Mass migration of Europeans to Latin America Japanese immigrants came to western South America as laborers Latin America
RUSSIAN INDUSTRIALIZATION Russia experienced the 2 nd Industrial Revolution Financed by exportation of minerals, oil, gas, grains Development of rail system spurred other industries, exports Strongest development in coal, steel areas of Ukraine Rise of industrial cities: St. Petersburg. Moscow, Poland, Ukraine Promoted by tsarist government, French government France needed Russia as a military ally against Germany Russia needed a modern economy to compete on world stage Formula: French loans/investment, sale of Russian grain Se rgei Witte, Minister of finance, Top-down Management Style Supported railway construction Military rationale: to move troops to border if attacked But stimulated other industries including exports Remodeled the state bank Protected infant industries with tariffs, subsidies Secured foreign loans especially from France Industrial discontent intensified Rapid growth of factories, urban working class Industrialization fell hardest on working classes Government reaction Outlawed unions, strikes Workers increasingly radical socialists, Marxists, Populists Business class supported autocracy, not reform By 1900 produced half the world's oil, significant iron, armaments
European invested in Latin American early industrialization Some railroads were built but LA remained mostly agricultural and serf based Single crop products: Coffee Bananas Wheat Beef sugar Industrialization Spreads: Latin America
LATIN AMERICAN DEPENDENCE Colonial legacy Prevented industrialization Spain, Portugal never encouraged industries Limited success at industrialization 1820 – 1850: Economic Stagnation Wars of independence had disrupted economy Most wealth tied to land, agriculture Export of primary, unfinished goods especially guano, coffee, hides Too many unsolved social problems retarded industrialization Economic growth part of 2 nd Industrial Revolution Change grew out of liberalizing effects, reforms in late century Entrepreneurs, intellectuals, landowners brought in foreign investments Facilitated by new technologies (railroads, steamships) Great Boom driven by exports Demand for rubber, copper, tin, silver, beef, bananas, oil, coffee, cocoa Capital intensive development of primary product exports Trade increased by almost 50% from 1870 – 1880 British initially preeminent; Germany and US increasingly rivals for area Mexico, Brazil, Argentina Society, infrastructure transformed by this Great Boom But wealth often in hands of foreigners, upper elite Growth was often at the expense of local interests, poor, minorities Liberal idealism often sold out to wealth of elite, profit
1. second half of the nineteenth century: greater stability, integration into world economy 2. rapid growth of Latin American exports to industrializing countries a. exported food products and raw materials b. imported textiles, machinery, tools, weapons, luxury goods 3. major investment of European and U.S. capital in Latin America
England rules India India leading grower of cotton which England eagerly imported Some industry in India to create the thread and cloth But not rapid growth until end of 20 th C Industrialization Spreads: India
Rejected most things Western Some industry for railroads Continued with peasant labor and hand-made items Industrial powers take advantage of China’s weak gov’t and forced open trade regions (spheres of influence) US proposed “open door policy” Industrialization Spreads: China
Ottoman Empire Limited progress Gov’t misread the impact of industry in West Africa Remained provider of raw materials Little to no industry allowed Industrialization Spreads: Other Areas