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1820 – 1850: ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1. MARKET REVOLUTION 2. FOREIGN POLICY: MANIFEST DESTINY 3. ANDREW JACKSON AND ERA OF THE COMMON MAN: SLAVERY AND ABOLITION.

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Presentation on theme: "1820 – 1850: ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1. MARKET REVOLUTION 2. FOREIGN POLICY: MANIFEST DESTINY 3. ANDREW JACKSON AND ERA OF THE COMMON MAN: SLAVERY AND ABOLITION."— Presentation transcript:

1 1820 – 1850: ANTEBELLUM AMERICA 1. MARKET REVOLUTION 2. FOREIGN POLICY: MANIFEST DESTINY 3. ANDREW JACKSON AND ERA OF THE COMMON MAN: SLAVERY AND ABOLITION 4. SECTIONALISM

2 Market Revolution  Period of growth and transformation in the American economy (first industrial revolution)  The South and the Cotton Kingdom  1793 – Eli Whitney – The Cotton Gin  1 lbs. to 1000 lbs. per day  1792 – 6000 Bales, 1801 – 100,000 Bales, 1840 – 2 mil Bales, 1860 – 5 mil Bales  Demand for Land Deep South/Cotton Kingdom Plantation Society  Slavery – Mil Mil Mil

3 Market Revolution  The North and Industry  1791 – Samuel Slater – Textile Mill – 240 Mills in New England  Factory System and Coal Power, Interchangeable Parts – Eli Whitney  Labor: Lowell System: Women, Immigration: Irish and German, Nativism and Know Nothings  Urbanization - Tenements

4 Market Revolution  The Northwest: The Bread Basket  Mechanical Reaper, Thresher, and Steel Plow: Wheat and Corn  Northwest Industry – Food processing and farm equipment – Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis, Milwaukee  Advances in Transportation  Steamboat – 1807 – Clermont – Fulton and Livingston  Canal Era ( ) – Erie Canal – – 3000 miles of canals  Railroad – Baltimore and Ohio Railroad – – 9000 miles of tracks  New Methods of Transportation all served to connect the Northwest and the Northeast

5 Foreign Policy: Manifest Destiny  James Polk: 1840s – Manifest Destiny - Belief that it was God’s will to have Americans spread across the Continent 1. Texas – War for Independence – Annexation Oregon – Treaty with British – 49 th Parallel Mexican War and Cession – 1848 In 1850, California became the 31 st State in the Union and Americans had spread themselves across the entire North American Continent

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7 Reasons for Westward Expansion  Manifest Destiny  Population Increase – 1780 – 2.5 million; 1830 – 12 million; million  Availability of Transportation - Steamboat, Canals, and Railroads  Availability of Land and Money: Desire for farmland (Cotton), California Gold Rush-1849  Persecution: Mormons  Indian Removal Act: Andrew Jackson v. Cherokee Indians, Worcester V. Georgia, Trail of Tears, 116 Days, ¼ Died en route to Oklahoma

8 Andrew Jackson and the Era of the Common Man  Increase in Democracy  New voting requirements – no property ownership – 1820 – 24%; 1840 – 80%  Spoils System  Nominating Conventions and Electoral College  Reform Movements  Temperance  Education – Individual Worth Horace Mann and Massachusetts Public Schools and Literacy Rates Republican Motherhood  Women’s Rights Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 – “Declarations of Sentiments and Resolutions”

9 Slavery and Abolition  Increase in Slavery: Abolition of Slave Trade- 1808, Natural Increase, Cotton Kingdom: Mil, 1860 – 4 Mil  Changes in Slavery in the South  Plantation System and Deep South  Task System vs. Gang System - Overseer and Driver  Slave Codes  Peculiar Institution – Cared for and Christianized  Responses to Changes:  Slave Culture – Language, Religion, Music  Rebel – Slowdown, Theft, Destruction Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Whites and 200 Blacks killed (20 were hanged)  Escape - Underground Railroad and Harriet Tubman – (40,000 – 100,000 escaped)

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12 Abolitionist Movement  Political movement to outlaw slavery  William Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator; American Antislavery Society  Frederick Douglass: The North Star, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, "The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro"  Sojourner Truth - The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave  David Walker – Appeal  American Colonization Society  Free- Soilers – opposed expansion of slavery  Southern Response= Peculiar Institution, Christianize and Civilize, Treat better than industrial workers in North, All of society benefits, Protected by Constitution (5 th and 10 th Amendments)

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14 Sectionalism  Urbanized and Industrialized  70% RR, Telegraph wires and 2 ½ times the populations  $1.6 billion in goods  Supports Tariffs  Opposes Ext. of Slavery  Supports Internal Improvements  Supports Federal Power  Agrarian  Little means of transportation and communication  $155 million in goods  Opposes Tariffs  Supports Slavery  Opposes Internal Improvements  Supports States’ Rights The NorthThe South

15 Sectional Conflicts  South Carolina Nullification  Tariff of Abominations – SC votes to nullify  Andrew Jackson and Force Act  State Power v. Federal Power  Missouri Compromise  Balance of Power: 11:11  Missouri and Maine  36’30’ line across rest of Louisiana Purchase

16 Andrew Jackson: Criticized for abusing power in South Carolina Nullification, Cherokee Removal, and veto power.


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