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Medieval Literature (Cir )

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Presentation on theme: "Medieval Literature (Cir )"— Presentation transcript:

1 Medieval Literature (Cir. 500-1500)

2 Medium + aevum  Mediaeval/ Medieval, Middle Ages Early Middle Ages (Early Medieval Period) High Middle Ages Late Middle Ages

3 Early Middle ages (5th - 10th centuries)
 from the decline of the Western Roman Empire to the High Middle Ages also called Dark Ages

4 construction of a fortified town during Dark Ages

5 Early Middle Ages (5th-10th centuries)
feudalism  farmers, noble men no commerce

6 High Middle Ages (c. 1001–1300)  the end of Early Middle Ages-Late Middle Ages rapid increase of population in Europe brought about great social and political changes

7 trade revival during the High Middle Ages

8 trade revival during the High Middle Ages

9 one of the first banks established during 11th-12th centuries in the High Medieval

10 Universities in Europe were first established in Bologna, Salerno, Paris and Modena.

11 In 1095 Pope Urban II preached the First Crusade with the intention to reestablish Christian rule in the Holy Land/ Palestine.

12 Late Middle Ages (cir.1301-1500)
 end of High Middle Ages-the onset of Early Modern Era progress of arts and sciences a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts Italian Renaissance began

13 Literature of Western Europe
Poetry Drama Prose

14 Poetry  French and Spanish la chanson de geste
2) French Roman Courtois 3) French Fabliau 4) Italian Epic 5) English Verse 6) English Metrical Romance 7) Ballad

15 la chanson de geste  praise the heroic deeds of the national heroes La Chanson de Roland (The Song of Roland) El Cid (The Song of the Cid)

16  Tristan et Iseult  Chrétien de Troyes
Roman Courtois  Tristan et Iseult  Chrétien de Troyes

17 Tristan et Iseult

18 Chrétien de Troyes  Le Chevalier a la Charette Yvain Perceval  legends of King Arthur and his knights

19 King Arthur among his knights

20 Fabliau  comical fable told in verse of the French genre jongleurs in northeast France Roman de Renart  Renart vs Ysengrin  fox vs wolf

21 confrontation of Renart and Ysengrin in a battle

22 Epic  La Divina Commedia (The Divine Comedy) Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso  Dante Alighieri greatest Italian epic

23 Dante holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, with the entrance to Hell on the left, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory in the middle and the city of Florence on the right, with the spheres of Heaven above

24 English Verse  Canterbury Tales  Geoffrey Chaucer a collection of stories in a frame story a group of 29 pilgrims from all layers of society tell stories to each other to kill time while travelling to Saint Thomas Becket’s shrine in Canterbury

25 Canterbury Tales  Decameron  Giovanni Boccaccio frame narrative technique tale within tale

26 influence of Decameron’s frame narrative technique on Canterbury Tales

27 Decameron: stories with the theme of tragic love told on the fourth day

28 frame narrative technique of Canterbury Tales influenced by Decameron

29 The Nun’s Priest’s Tale
the story of a rooster, Chanticleer and a fox, told by the nun’s priest

30 English Metrical Romance
 Pearl Poet/ Gawain Poet  Gawain and the Green Knight one of a better-known Arthurian stories a hero, Gawain, goes on a quest that test his prowess and bravery in a beheading game challenged by the Green Knight

31 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Green Knight challenging Gawain to join the beheading game

32 ballad oral literature 
ballads of outlaws  celebrating  the lives of outlaws or criminals such as  Robin Hood ballads of  magic   recounting  stories about fairies,  witches and  ghosts ballads  of betrayal love ballads of domestic tragedy

33 most ballads were set to music, as they were meant to be sung  rather than read

34 the revival of drama in the 10th century
the revival of drama in the 10th century the medieval priest gives birth to the liturgical drama, Quem quaeritis?, as a means to teach

35 Quem Quaeritis? (Whom Seek Ye?)
performance of Quem Quaeritis? in a Medieval Cathedral/ monastery

36 performing place: cathedral / monastery /church
Cathedral of Florence

37 performing place: cathedral / monastery /church
Church of San Lorenzo

38 medieval stage: platea, mansion

39 medieval stage within a church

40 medieval stage: pageant wagon

41 Types of Medieval Drama
liturgical play religious play secular play

42 1. liturgical play  Quem Quaeritis?

43 2. religious play  mystery play: biblical stories from the creation to the Judgment Day miracle play, saint play: lives and miracles of saints morality play: designed to teach a moral and improve the behavior of the audience

44 Noah’s Ark, a mystery play, at York

45 St. George and the Dragon, a miracle play/ a saint play, performed on April 23, 2008 at Scotland

46 Everyman, the best known English morality play

47  folk play farce interlude
3. secular play  folk play farce interlude

48 folk play: Robin Hood

49 farce: Pierre Pathlin

50 interlude

51  chivalric romance Le Morte d’ Arthur  Sir Thomas Malory
prose  chivalric romance Le Morte d’ Arthur  Sir Thomas Malory

52 Le Morte D’ Arthur narrates the story of King Arthur, a legendary British leader of the late 5th and early 6th centuries, who led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders Camelot, the dwelling of King Arthur

53 Arabic Literature

54 The Bedouins in the Arabian Desert

55 Arabic Literature  early Arabic literature  oral literature the contents  wars, desert, camels, horses, love

56 Arabic Literature  the finest / the most important piece The Qur’an basis for a new religion and community known today as Islam

57 the Qur’an inscribed during 8-9th century

58 the Qur’an inscribed in 12th century

59 Arabic Literature  flourished during the Islamic Golden Age the best-known story of the Islamic world A Thousand and One Nights The Arabian Nights

60 A Thousand and One Nights The Arabian Nights
 frame narrative technique tales within tale Sinbad the Sailor Ali Baba Aladin and the Magic Lamp

61 ยุโรป จีน อาหรับ วรรณคดียุคกลาง

62  Rubaiyat  Omar Khayyám
Persian Literature  Rubaiyat  Omar Khayyám

63 Chinese Literature  Tang Dynasty (618 - 917)
Song Dynasty ( ) Yuan Dynasty ( ) Ming Dynasty ( )

64 Golden of Age of Chinese Literature
Tang Dynasty ( ) Golden of Age of Chinese Literature Poetry Prose

65 Tang Poetry  Golden Age of Poetry more than 2,200 poets more than 48,900 pieces of poems

66  Li Bai/ Li Bo Wang Wei Tu Fu  greatest Chinese poet
Tang Poets  Li Bai/ Li Bo Wang Wei Tu Fu  greatest Chinese poet

67 Tang Prose  Chuánqi (ฉวนฉี) miracles love heroic deeds satire the noblemen instructive moral at the end

68 Tang Prose  Bian Wen (เปี้ยนเหวิน) episodes from the Buddha’s life non-Buddhist stories from Chinese history and folklore

69 Song Literature (960 – 1279)  improvement of printing  increase literary output  storytelling in the vernacular arose in this period these tales reflected the style of the storyteller who entertained audiences gathered in marketplaces, fairgrounds, or temple yards

70 Yuan Dynasty ( )  Mongol first alien dynasty Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan cancellation of civil service examination drama was the greatest achievement

71 Ming Literature ( )  prosperous period of printing in China popularity of long fiction / novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms (สามก๊ก) Outlaw of the Marsh (ซ้องกั๋ง) Journey to the West (ไซอิ๋ว)

72 Romance of the Three Kingdoms
 Luo Guanzhong (หลอกว้านจง)  part historical, part legend, and part myth

73 Romance of the Three Kingdoms
 romanticises and dramatises the lives of feudal lords and their retainers to replace/ restore the dwindling Han dynasty three political factions

74 Romance of the Three Kingdoms

75 Outlaw of the Marsh (ซ้องกั๋ง)
a group of 108 outlaws forced by the harsh feudal officialdom form a sizable army on Mount Liang /Liangshan Marsh

76 Journey to the West (ไซอิ๋ว)
 Wu Cheng’en (หวูเฉินเอิน)  fictionalized account of the legendary pilgrimage of a Buddhist monk, Tang Sanzang (พระถังซำจั๋ง)  India loosely based on a historic text, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, some traditional folk tales and records of a Buddhist monk, Xuan Zang (หลวงจีนส้วนจัง)

77 the cover of Journey to the West with Tang Sanzang (พระถังซำจั๋ง) , the White Dragon Horse, Sun Wukong (ซึงหงอคง) , Zhu Bajie (ตือโป้ยก่าย) and Sha Wujing (ซัวเจ๋ง)

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