Presentation on theme: "We will look at the most pivotal individual in bringing about the Protestant Reformation Session 2 – Martin Luther In this session we will look at the."— Presentation transcript:
We will look at the most pivotal individual in bringing about the Protestant Reformation Session 2 – Martin Luther In this session we will look at the beginning of the reformation period We will see the positive and negative aspects of his theology and teachings
Luther grew up in a poor family, and was sent to the university to become a Lawyer, after a while there he became a Monk, and after being a Monk he started to question certain doctrines of the Catholic church Martin Luther born in Saxony, in 1483
On October 31 st, 1517 Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany “I dissent, I disagree, I protest” The 95 theses are too long to read over here, but can be easily found online if you are interested
The 95 theses are addressing the use of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church If you want to help a dead relative in purgatory make it to heaven, you need to have Masses said for that person. In order to have that done, you pay them. Indulgences were sold by the Catholic Church with the claim that they shorten someone's time in purgatory
Example of these theses 1. When our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, said "Repent", He called for the entire life of believers to be one of repentance. 2. The word cannot be properly understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, i.e. confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
35. It is not in accordance with Christian doctrines to preach and teach that those who buy off souls, or purchase confessional licenses, have no need to repent of their own sins. 42. Christians should be taught that the pope does not at all intend that the purchase of indulgences should be understood as at all comparable with the works of mercy.
Although they were not written down in a systematic form at the time, the reformers fought for what today is known as the five Solas: Sola Scriptura (“Scripture alone”): The Bible alone is our highest authority. Sola Fide (“faith alone”): We are saved through faith alone in Jesus Christ.
Soli Deo Gloria (“to the glory of God alone”): We live for the glory of God alone. Sola Gratia (“grace alone”): We are saved by the grace of God alone. Solus Christus (“Christ alone”): Jesus Christ alone is our Lord, Savior, and King. These were the foundational beliefs
The sola that caused the most debate (now and still today) is the idea of Sola Scriptura The idea of Sola Scriptura undermined the office of Pope, and the infallibility of the Catholic Church Sola Scriptura espouses the idea that the Bible is the only infallible rule of faith that we have been given
As we have said before, we are not going to be addressing the theological debates in detail here (we have an entire class for that) but for now we just want you to know what the issues were at the time Martin Luther got married eventually to a lady named Catherine Von Bora, who he married just to spite the Pope (although they had a good marriage)
Luther did many debates against both Catholics and Protestants on different topics Against Catholics he would debate the issues we’ve been discussing Against Protestants like Ulrich Zwingli (an important reformer) he would debate things like communion, which multiple views had formed in regard to.
Luther was a very black and white individual, and was not very classy when dealing with people of opposing beliefs (Protestants or Catholics) “Your words are so foolishly and ignorantly composed that I cannot believe you understand them.” M.L. “I would not smell the foul odor of your name.” M.L.
“There you are, like butter in sunshine.” M.L. One of the highlights in Luther’s life is when he was summoned to: The diet of Worms Luther began his trip to Worms on April 2 nd, The journey to the Imperial Diet did not embody the repentance the church had hoped for.
The journey to Worms was more like a victory march; Luther was welcomed enthusiastically in all of the towns he went through. He preached in Erfurt, Gotha and Eisenach. He arrived in Worms on April 16 th and was also cheered and welcomed by the people. Luther's appearance at the Imperial Diet was described as objective, clever and well thought out.
He had to appear before the Emperor twice; each time he was clearly told to take back his teachings. Luther didn't see any proof against his theses or views which would move him to recant:
"Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen." After he left the negotiations room, he said "I am finished."
Luther was dismissed, and not arrested because he had a letter of safe conduct (Schutzbrief) which guaranteed him 21 days of safe travel through the land. He headed home on April 25 th. When Luther and the princes who supported him left Worms, the emperor imposed an Imperial Act (Wormser Edikt): Luther is declared an outlaw (he may be killed by anyone without punishment)
On the trip home, Friedrich the Wise allowed Luther to be kidnapped on May 4 th. This took place on the one hand to guarantee Luther's safety and on the other hand to let him disappear from the scene for a short while;
there were even rumors of Luther's death. This action also helped Friedrich not to endanger himself because he could have been held liable for protecting an outlaw and a heretic. Luther was taken to the secluded Wartburg and the Reformation had time to stabilize and strengthen While there Luther worked on translating the New Testament into the spoken language of the German people
This is one of the big changes the reformation brought to the people of Europe Before, most individuals couldn’t read the Bible unless they knew Latin, most didn’t know what was being said in Mass, most didn’t even know the words to the songs they would sing (the reformation started singing in the modern language).
The Bible came alive to people because of the translating work that was being done, people could read it for themselves and see what it said The translation of the Bible into the peoples language was a pivotal part in the reformation
Luther began to get ill in his old age, and on Feb 18 th, 1546, Luther passed away Even though Luther was the one who started the reformation, it did not end with him Luther wrote many works during his lifetime that we still have available for use today
Works of Luther Table talk (by Martin Luther) Many of Luther's books were ordered to be burned as a result of Luther's dissent. Despite this fact, a copy of Martin Luther's Table Talk (then entitled Divine Discourses) was found preserved under the foundations of a German citizen's home in 1626.
Table Talk contains a series of informal conversations Luther shared with his students and colleagues in his home. The topics of these conversations range from religious doctrine and history to instructions regarding government, church, and the academic university. Luther is bold in how he presents his views in his writings
Luther's Small Catechism reviews the Ten Commandments, the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the Sacrament of Holy Baptism, the Office of the Keys and Confession and the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Luther's Large Catechism consists of works written by Martin Luther and compiled Christian canonical texts, published in April This book was addressed particularly to clergymen to aid them in teaching their congregations.
Some of his books reveal a dark side to him (and much of the reformation) On the Jews and their Lies (By Luther) “It is not my purpose to quarrel with the Jews, nor to learn from them how they interpret or understand Scripture; I know all of that very well already. Much less do I propose to convert the Jews, for that is impossible.
…Those two excellent men, Lyra and Burgensis, together with others, truthfully described the Jews' vile interpretation... If these blows do not help, it is reasonable to assume that our talking and explaining will help even less...” While Luther may be right in some of what he says (the Jews wrongly interpret scripture in many areas) there are some serious problems
“So we are even at fault in not avenging all this innocent blood of our Lord and of the Christians which they shed for three hundred years after the destruction of Jerusalem, and the blood of the children they have shed since then (which still shines forth from their eyes and their skin). We are at fault in not slaying them. Rather we allow them to live freely in our midst despite an their murdering, cursing, blaspheming, lying, and defaming”
Here is a long, but disturbing quote: What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews? Since they live among us, we dare not tolerate their conduct, now that we are aware of their lying and reviling and blaspheming. If we do, we become sharers in their lies, cursing and blasphemy. Thus we cannot extinguish the unquenchable fire of divine wrath, of which the prophets speak, nor can we convert the Jews.
With prayer and the fear of God we must practice a sharp mercy to see whether we might save at least a few from the glowing flames. We dare not avenge ourselves. Vengeance a thousand times worse than we could wish them already has them by the throat. I shall give you my sincere advice: First, to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, so that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them.
This is to be done in honor of our Lord and of Christendom, so that God might see that we are Christians, and do not condone or knowingly tolerate such public lying, cursing, and blaspheming of his Son and of his Christians. For whatever we tolerated in the past unknowingly and I myself was unaware of it will be pardoned by God. But if we, now that we are informed, were to protect and shield such a house for the Jews, existing right before our very nose,…
in which they lie about, blaspheme, curse, vilify, and defame Christ and us (as was heard above), it would be the same as if we were doing all this and even worse ourselves, as we very well know…. Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed. For they pursue in them the same aims as in their synagogues. Instead they might be lodged under a roof or in a barn, like the gypsies.”
The quotes go on and on about how he would advise dealing with the Jews His idea is to take all their rights away and basically make them slaves (summarizing) You need to be aware of this aspect of the reformation, and realize that just because they said it, doesn’t mean we have to defend it. Luther was wrong about this.
While he did a lot of good for what would develop into modern day Christianity, he had some bad theology, and was still very catholic in his mindset, and he was very cruel towards the Jews We will not end on that note though, we will look at a few more quotes from Luther
“So when the devil throws your sins in your face and declares that you deserve death and hell, tell him this: "I admit that I deserve death and hell, what of it? For I know One who suffered and made satisfaction on my behalf. His name is Jesus Christ, Son of God, and where He is there I shall be also!” ― Martin Luther “We are saved by faith alone, but the faith that saves is never alone.” ― Martin Luther
“If you want to change the world, pick up your pen and write.” ― Martin Luther What you write and leave to future generations will have a far greater impact then just the things you can do in your lifetime “I have so much to do that I shall spend the first three hours in prayer.” ― Martin Luther
“True humility does not know that it is humble. If it did, it would be proud from the contemplation of so fine a virtue.” ― Martin Luther “There never yet have been, nor are there now, too many good books.” -Martin Luther “Let the wife make her husband glad to come home and let him make her sorry to see him leave.” ― Martin Luther
Memory Verse Psalm 18:2: “The L ORD is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer; My God, my strength, in whom I will trust; My shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold.” “This is my own beloved Psalm. Although the entire Psalter and all of Holy Scripture are dear to me as my only comfort and source of life, I fell in love with this psalm especially…
Therefore I call it my own. When emperors and kings, the wise and the learned, and even the saints could not aid me, this psalm proved a friend and helped me out of many great troubles. As a result, it is dearer to me than all the wealth, honor, and power of the pope, the Turk, and the emperor. I would be most unwilling to trade this psalm for all of it.”