6A 01 Punishment used by the Roman army. If a soldier tried to desert the army and was caught the whole group would be punished.The punishment was the execution of every 10th soldier.This punishment was a deterrent; designed to put off potential deserters.
8A 02 A set of tablets or signs that outline the 12 sets of Roman laws. Children were taught to read and write by reciting and copying out these laws.They were displayed in public places.If a Roman committed a crime they could not claim that they did not know the laws.
14A 05 These were soldiers. They were from the Emperor’s personal guard. They were only called in to protect the emperor if there was an emergency or a riot.
15Did the Romans try to prevent crime? Q 06Did the Romans try to prevent crime?
16A 06 On the one hand: However, on the other hand: The Vigiles were used to prevent minor crimes at night time.However, on the other hand:Romans had to catch criminals themselves.Vigiles only operated at night.Although there were harsh punishments and the Urban Cohorts as a deterrent, the Romans did not actively try to stop crime from happening.
17For what crimes could Roman citizens be put to death? Q 07For what crimes could Roman citizens be put to death?
18A 07 Arson Attacking the Emperor Robbing a temple Stealing Farm animals
19How were Romans citizens punished for minor crimes? Q 08How were Romans citizens punished for minor crimes?
21Q 09Why is it difficult for Historians to work out how much crime took place in ancient Rome?
22A 09It is very difficult to work out how much crime took place in ancient Rome because very little documentary (written down) evidence survives from this time period. Without records no one can really know the extent of crime in ancient Rome.
23Give examples of the types of crime that occurred in Ancient Rome Q 10Give examples of the types of crime that occurred in Ancient Rome
26A 11 Someone who listened to court cases. For minor cases they made the decisions alone.For major cases they listened to cases with a jury.They did not need to be legally trained; they could take advice from layers.
27Did the Roman legal system spread to their empire? Q 12Did the Roman legal system spread to their empire?
28A 12 On the one hand: However, on the other hand: Roman citizens, no matter where they lived in the empire, were subject to Roman laws and the same legal protection they could expect at home.Cases would be heard by a local Magistrate.Just as in Rome, the Roman Magistrate would only listen to cases brought to him, they would not search for criminals.However, on the other hand:Non-citizens (for example the native Britons in England) would be tried according to their own customs.
29Crime and Punishment In Medieval England Back to topic selection screen
33A 02 This was a punishment against violent crimes. If you committed a crime against a member of another family a blood feud would exist between your families.This would result in the victims family taking ‘revenge’ on the other family.If however the revenge was seen as more violent than the original crime this would result in further revenge.This cycle could go on for generations.
35A 03‘Blood Money’ this was paid to someone as a form of compensation of the damage they had made to a persons.The amount depended on what part of the victim had been damaged. For example you would have to pay 50 shillings if you knocked out someone’s eye or 6 shillings if you broke their arm.This replaced the blood feud.This was a SAXON punishment.
36Why was Wergild better than the blood feud? Q 04Why was Wergild better than the blood feud?
37A 04The Wergild was better than the Blood Feud because this new form of punishment by fines discouraged further violence unlike the Blood Feud which promoted further violence. The overall result was a reduction in violent crime.
41A 06 A form of Saxon and Norman policing. If someone saw a crime being committed they had to cry out to their fellow villagers for help.The villagers would then collectively attempt to catch the criminal and bring him before the local lord.
43A 07 A form of Saxon and Norman policing. In a village the adult men (Over 12 years old) were members of a group of 10 (the tithing)The 10 men were then responsible for each others’ behaviour.If one of them broke the law the rest were expected to being that person to justice.
45A 08 Allowing the judgment for a crime to be made by god. There were four main Saxon ordeals:Trial by fire (or hot iron)Trial by Cold waterTrial by Hot waterTrial by SacramentThe Normans introduced another ordeal:Trial by Combat
47A 09 Usually undertaken by women For this they had to: The outcome: Hold a red hot iron bar for either a number of seconds or a number of paces.Then have their wounds bandaged.After a number of days their wounds were checked.The outcome:If their wounds began to heal God had deemed them innocent.If their wounds had not begun to heal God had deemed them guilty.
49A 10 Usually undertaken by men For this they had to: The outcome: Take an item from the bottom of a container of boiling hot water.Then have their wounds bandaged.After a number of days their wounds were checked.The outcome:If their wounds began to heal God had deemed them innocent.If their wounds had not begun to heal God had deemed them guilty.
51A 11 Usually undertaken by men (only used for witches centuries later) For this they had to:Be placed in a local lake or pond.The outcome:If they went under the water (which represented purity) they were considered innocent.If they floated (rejected by the pure water) they were considered guilty.
53A 12 Usually undertaken by priests For this they had to: The outcome: Pray for a blessed piece of bread to choke them if they were guilty.Then try to eat the bread.The outcome:If they did choke on the bread they were guilty.If they did not choke on the bread they were not guilty.
55A 13 Introduced by the Normans Usually undertaken by men For this they had to:Fight their accuser, or pay someone to fight for them.This was either to the death or until one part gave in.The outcome:The winner was considered to have the protection of God and was therefore innocent.The loser was not protected by God and was therefore guilty.
56Why did they use trial by Ordeal? Q 14Why did they use trial by Ordeal?
57A 14Criminals were usually tried by a Jury of people that they knew. Trial by ordeal was used if the jury could not decide on the guilt or innocence of the person. They would then use an ordeal to allow God to make the judgement.
58What did the Normans change/introduce? Q 15What did the Normans change/introduce?
59A 15 Feudal System Murdrum fines Forrest Laws French language for written lawsTrial by CombatFines paid to King not the victimThe status of women in law was reduced
60What did the Normans keep the same? Q 16What did the Normans keep the same?
61A 16 Tithings Hew & cry Trial by jury (before ordeal) Trial by ordeal (after a jury failed to make a decision)
62Why do you think William I wanted to make changes to Saxon law? Q 17Why do you think William I wanted to make changes to Saxon law?
63A 17 On the one hand he made some changes because: He wanted to make sure the Normans were in control after the conquest. Changes such as the forest laws, using Norman French and the Murdum fines are good examples.He also changed some of the punishments (such as paying fines to the King) to make sure everyone knew that he was now in control.However, on the other hand he kept some things the same because:He wanted people to understand the laws, too much change would have left too much confusion.He did not want to upset too many people and cause more rebellion.
65A 18If a Norman was killed by a Saxon this was know not as murder but as Murdrum.If the guilty party could not be found the whole village had to share in a large fine.This would encourage people in the village to come forward if they knew who had committed the crime.
67A 19Forests that were protected by this law could only be hunted in by Normans.The trees could not be cut down for fuel or buildings.People who lived in the forest could not own bows.If caught hunting in these forests the punishment was blinding!
69A 20This was a system used by William the Conqueror to control the country by giving out land in exchange for loyalty.
70How did the use of the French language help control the Saxons? Q 21How did the use of the French language help control the Saxons?
71A 21Writing the laws using the French language helped control the Saxons as it excluded Saxons from understanding written laws or contributing to any new written laws. This helped the Normans to stay in control.
72Q 22Which King is most associated with Court reform and ‘Royal Justice’ in the later middle ages?
74What would you associate with ‘Royal Justice’? Q 23What would you associate with ‘Royal Justice’?
75A 23 Justices of the Peace (JP’s) The Kings Peace County Gaols Travelling JusticesJury by ‘Writ’County Coroners
76Justice of the Peace (JP) Q 24Justice of the Peace (JP)
77A 24 Originally 3-4 JP’s were appointed for each county. They were from the Gentry (the lords/Knights)They were responsible for keeping peace.They had the power to:FineArrest & BindHear local cases in small courts 4 time each year
79A 25This was originally an area around the king, or the roads that he was travelling on.If a crime was committed in the area designated as ‘the Kings Peace’ then the punishments were considerably more harsh.This was designed to deter criminals from committing crime near to the King.Henry II decided to extend these rules to the whole country, not just directly around him.
83A 27If you wanted the King to hear your case then you would have to follow him around, this could take a long time.The Travelling Justices were Judges given the right to hear cases in the Kings place.This increased the number of cases that could be heard at a given time.
85A 28If you did not want to have your case decided by Ordeal you could pay for a ‘Writ’.This gave the person the right to have their case heard in the Kings court and have the verdict given by a Jury.When trial by Ordeal was ended in 1215 everyone had to be tried by Jury, which meant that king raised a lot of money through the purchase of Writs.
87A 29These were people who were responsible for investigating sudden or unusual deaths.They also dealt with those in sanctuary.
88Do you think that Royal Justice helped improve the legal system? Q 30Do you think that Royal Justice helped improve the legal system?
89A 30 On the one hand: However, on the other hand: Many of the decisions of law and justices were taken away from the local lords who knew their communities best.However, on the other hand:Writs and JP’s fines raised money for the king.Travelling justices made legal processes quicker.Jury’s made verdicts more fair.Corrupt local lords who would have ignored the kings laws could no longer do so.
90What two things were offered by the Church courts? Q 31What two things were offered by the Church courts?
93A 32 The Church would try any churchman in their own courts This was originally designed for the Clergy.Eventually anyone remotely connected to the church claimed the right to be tried by the church as they were seen as less harsh.This annoyed the king as he felt that the church was too soft and too many people were getting off lightly.
95A 33If you were on the run from the law and you got to a church you could claim sanctuary.This meant that you could not be arrested.You could only claim sanctuary if you had committed certain crimes and the list of crimes got shorter and shorter over the years.Eventually you would have to meet with the County Coroner.When you confessed you were given the option to ‘abjure’ (leave the country).
97A 34 This is Islamic Law based on the teachings of the Qur’an The Qur’an sets out strict rules and punishments that must be given for particular crimes.It was up to the Qadi judges to interpret the Qur’an and decide upon the correct punishment.
98What were the aims of Islamic Punishments? Q 35What were the aims of Islamic Punishments?
99A 35 To deter future criminals To teach the criminals a lesson To provide a degree of revenge to the victims and their family.This also prevented families trying to take revenge themselves and getting involved in generations of feuding (much like the Saxon blood feuds).
100Do you think religion made punishment harsh and bloody? Q 36Do you think religion made punishment harsh and bloody?
101A 36 On the one hand: However, on the other hand: Trial by ordeal left the choice up to God and these trials were considerably harsh and bloody.However, on the other hand:The church courts were seen as too soft on criminals.Islamic Shari’ah law is designed to make punishment fair for everyone.
102What did the Manor Courts deal with? Q 37What did the Manor Courts deal with?
103A 37 Disputes between members of a village The village Reeve would bring the cases to the Manor court every 3-4 weeks.The Lord/Lady of the Manor would then pass judgement.This dealt with many of the minor issues that arose from villagers being so closely interconnected in their daily lives.
104What could medieval women own? Q 38What could medieval women own?
105A 38 Nothing! Their father or Husband owned all of their possessions. The only women who could own anything were Widows who had been left something by their husband to support them.
106What was prejudice towards women based on? Q 39What was prejudice towards women based on?
107A 39The church taught that women were inferior to men.
108How were medieval women treated differently to men? Q 40How were medieval women treated differently to men?
109A 40 They could not marry without permission. They could be divorced but could not choose to divorce.They could not own property.They were paid less for the same work as men.They could not become MP’s, Doctors, or Priests.They could not got to university.
110What is Robin Hood most famous for? Q 41What is Robin Hood most famous for?
111A 41Stealing from the rich and giving to the poor.
112Why might medieval peasants like Robin Hood? Q 42Why might medieval peasants like Robin Hood?
113A 42Peasants would have liked Robin Hood because all of the things he was said to do; steal from the rich, be an outlaw, hunt in the forests, were things that ordinary people wanted to do. They would have enjoyed hearing stories of the Sheriff being out witted and stolen from by a peasant.
114Crime and Punishment In Early Modern England Back to topic selection screen
115What crimes became typically associated with the early modern period? Q 01What crimes became typically associated with the early modern period?
117Q 02What impact did the printing press have on peoples perceptions of crime?
118A 02The printing press affected peoples perceptions because it allowed information to pass on more freely. This meant that although crime rates did not necessarily increase more people knew it was happening. It also made certain crime more high profile because they could be reported on.
119Q 03What factors made Early Modern England different from the Medieval period?
120A 03 Population growth Greater gap between rich and poor Changing religious ideasIncreased travelHeavier taxationIncreased power of land ownersThe printing pressPolitical change
122A 04A poor person, perhaps a beggar, tramp or vagrant (homeless person)
123What were the main causes of Poverty? Q 05What were the main causes of Poverty?
124A 05 Increased population lead to fewer jobs Increased price of food left people with less moneyAfter Henry VII banned the barons from having private armies many soldiers lost their jobs.After Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries there was less charity available to poor people.
125What crimes were connected to Vagabonds? Q 06What crimes were connected to Vagabonds?
126A 06TheftGrifting (scamming people – e.g. Bristlers would use loaded dice to con people out of their money)Violence (e.g. The Baretop Tricksters would lure people to a violent gang to be robbed. Also ex-soldiers known as Rufflers would beat people up for money.
134A 10Those who could work and wanted to work as defined by the 1601 poor law.The money from the Poor rate was used to help these people by funding apprenticeships and by setting up work houses where people could get paid for doing very basic tasks.
136A 11Those who could work but instead chose to beg to make money as defined by the 1601 poor law.These people were punished by whipping in the first instance, then by prison and finally by execution if they continued to beg.
141How tolerant was Elizabeth I towards different religions? Q 14How tolerant was Elizabeth I towards different religions?
142A 14 England was a Protestant country under Elizabeth I. She was generally tolerant towards Catholics in the early part of her reign as long as they did not practice their religion in public.After a number of plots to over throw her she became much less tolerant towards Catholics in the latter part of her reign, Catholic mass was banned and the public practice of Catholicism was punished in the same way as treason.
143What was the Gunpowder plot? Q 15What was the Gunpowder plot?
144A 15A 1605 plot to blow up the houses of parliament with the intention of killing King James I.The Catholic plotters wanted to assassinate the Protestant King.One of the plotters, Guy Fawkes, was caught before the explosives were set.He was tortured to get information on the other plotters then brutally executed for high treason.
147What things did Oliver Cromwell ban? Q 17What things did Oliver Cromwell ban?
148A 17 Celebrating Christmas Celebrating Easter Drunkenness Swearing Closed brothelsSport on SundaysTheatresMake upMending dresses on a Sunday
149Why did Cromwell ban so many fun things? Q 18Why did Cromwell ban so many fun things?
150A 18Oliver Cromwell banned many fun things because as a Puritan he felt that people must focus completely on God, Jesus and the Bible’s teachings. It was considered that the fun things that he banned would have distracted people from this pure focus on their religion.
151How do you identify a witch? Q 19How do you identify a witch?
152A 19 Usually women, but not necessarily Old widowed women Those with cats or other small petsThose with prominent warts or moles
154A 20 Usually women, but not necessarily Old widowed women Those with cats or other small petsThose with prominent warts or moles
155How did the Witch Finder General try to prove women were witches? Q 21How did the Witch Finder General try to prove women were witches?
156A 21 By piercing warts/moles to look for signs of pain. Dunking women in the river in the same way as trial by cold water.By walking them up and down for hours, even days until they confess.Many confessed rather than go through the torture that they knew would happen if they did not.
157Q 22Why did the number of people convicted of witchcraft increase in this period?
158A 22The number of people convicted of witchcraft in this period increased because this was a time of religious change an people were quick to blame any strange activities on the devils influence. Also increased travel and media such as the printing press allowed stories to get passed around quickly and possible be misinterpreted.
162A 24 A idealised description of a Highwayman. These Highwaymen were considered to have a moral code; asking their victims to ‘stand and deliver’. This was essentially a warning before they were robbed to allow them to get away unharmed.
163Why did Highway robberies increase in the 18th century? Q 25Why did Highway robberies increase in the 18th century?
164A 25 More people were travelling on the roads. Horses were cheaper. The roads were not policed.Trade between towns meant that more valuable good were being transported.
166A 26Someone who brings goods in from abroad illegally and then sells them on without paying any tax or duty.
167Why did people like smugglers? Q 27Why did people like smugglers?
168A 27People tended to like smugglers because they brought in goods from the new colonies at low prices and were seen to be getting one over on the government and rich land owners that people did not like. This was a very similar to the reason why people liked the idea of Robin Hood.
170A 28Someone who hunted for animals on land where hunting was banned.
171Why did so many people become poachers? Q 29Why did so many people become poachers?
172A 29So many people became poachers because they had always hunted on the land just continued to do what they had always done after the new law was passed. They therefore became poachers. Many people did not see this as a crime.
174A 30 This was not a particular law. This was the name given to a set of laws passed that made a huge number of crimes ‘capital offences’.This period of time, during the 18th century saw the number of capital offences increase from around 50 to over 200.
177Do you think the Bloody Code was effective? Q 32Do you think the Bloody Code was effective?
178A 32 On the one hand: However, on the other hand: Many people were convicted and hanged of various crimes.The law makers wanted to protect their property and this largely ensured that.However, on the other hand:Many people were pardoned of their crimes as judges did not want to convict people knowing they would be killed.Public executions actually attracted more crime, drunkenness and theft amongst others.There were new ideas about punishment emerging, such as Transportation.
179Crime and Punishment In Industrial Britain Back to topic selection screen
180Q 01What factors make the industrial period different from Early Modern England?
181A 01 Population grew massively. Many more towns and cities developed. People moved from rural areas to live in the towns and cities.Transport and communication improved greatly.Central government took more responsibility for national issues.Poor harvests increased food prices.The way people worked and the jobs they did began to change following the industrial revolution.
185A 03 A Quaker woman living in 1780-1845. She went into women’s prisons and did not like what she saw:300 women in one roomFighting and cryingSome with babiesSome were abused by male jailersShe spent time teaching new skills to the inmates and campaigning for better conditions.
186What was the impact of Elizabeth Fry? Q 04What was the impact of Elizabeth Fry?
187A 04 She influenced the contents of the 1825 Gaols act which provided: Separate gaols for men and women with gender appropriate staff.Prisoners were provided with food, clothing and bedding.A system of prison visits was set up to ensure standards were maintained.
188Why was John Howard an important man? Q 05Why was John Howard an important man?
189A 05John Howard was an important man in the 1770 because he campaigned for prisons to be a place of reform rather than just punishment. He wanted people to leave prisons as better, changed people. Some of his ideas included separate cells and clean prisons.
190Why was Samuel Romiley an important man? Q 06Why was Samuel Romiley an important man?
191A 06Samuel Romilly was an important man in the late 18th century because he campaigned for a reduction of the death penalty for minor crimes. During the 17th & 18th centuries the bloody code and increased the number of capital offences dramatically. Not long after Romilly’s death murder and treason were the only capital offences left.
193A 07A punishment whereby the convicts were taken (typically) to Australia to serve out their sentence.Once transported they were assigned to a settler who would take them on essentially as a slave.Once their sentences was complete the ex-prisoner would have to pay their own way back to England.
195A 08Ex-navy ships used as holding prisons until there were enough convict to fill a transport ship.
196Why was transportation used? Q 09Why was transportation used?
197A 09It was seen as a more moderate punishment than execution but more harsh than flogging.A typical sentence was 7 years.Prisoners were transported to America but following the war of independence they began to transport to Australia instead.
198Was the use of transportation successful? Q 10Was the use of transportation successful?
199A 10 On the one hand: However, on the other hand: It did provide a compromise between execution and minor punishments like fines and whipping.When prisons were still like medieval dungeons, before the reforms, it was considered to be a more humane option.However, on the other hand:It separated families.Australian citizens began to get annoyed that their home was being used as a dumping ground.New prisons in the UK were adequate and cheaper.Some people saw transportation as a soft option.
200Describe an early 19th Century prison Q 11Describe an early 19th Century prison
201A 11 All convicts of all crimes were kept together. Gaols were dirty and damp.Most prisons were overcrowded.Many inmates died of ‘Gaol Fever’ most likely dysentery.Prison staff were not paid, they made their money by charging prisoners for almost everything.
203A 12 After the reform act prisons were: Cleaner No pets were allowed in the prisonsPrison staff had to be paidInmates had to be separated in to appropriate groups (e.g. women together, murderers separate from the petty thieves etc..)Prisons were checked by magistrates.
205A 13 This was correction facility specifically designed for children. The first one was open in 1902 in Borstal Kent.This was the first time children were separated from adult criminals.
206What impact did the 1870 Education act have on juvenile crime? Q 14What impact did the 1870 Education act have on juvenile crime?
207A 14In introduction of the 1870 Education Act reduced juvenile crime because it meant that children would be in school. With more children in school (and therefore off the streets) in the day they were less able and likely to break the law.
209A 15 Prisoners were not allowed to see each other. They were kept in separate cells, and even separated from each other during services in chapel.This was extended solitary confinement.This did result in mental breakdowns and even suicide.
211A 16By the 1860’s many people felt that reform was making prisons a soft option.The Silent System was a reaction to this. Prisoners had to endure the following:Hard labour; doing pointless physical tasks on a daily basis.Hard fare; eating adequate but monotonous food.Hard board; hammocks were replaced with hard wood beds.All of the above was done in silence, breaking this rule would result in flogging.
213A 17 Early form of organised police in London. These were paid and trained men with the job of policing the streets of the inner London area.Bow street was where the magistrates court was and this acted as a sort of police station for the Bow Street Runners.
215A 18This act formally created the Metropolitan police that we still have today.This was set up by Home Secretary Sit Robert Peel.The original ‘met’ police force covered an area of 7miles around the centre of London.The became known as ‘Peelers’ after Robert Peel.
216Why did people need a police force? Q 19Why did people need a police force?
217A 19 People were afraid of crime. The old system of watchmen was no longer adequate.Larger cities needed a different type of crime prevention.Fear of revolution as had happened in France.Government was getting more involved in directly affecting life in Britain.Robert Peel championed the idea as Home Secretary.
218Why was there initial hostility towards the police? Q 20Why was there initial hostility towards the police?
219A 20Initially there was hostility towards the new police force because there had never been a group of people actively monitoring what people were doing to see if it was criminal or not. This was seen as interfering with peoples’ liberties as citizens. Also they were seen as an expense to the tax payer and the early police were often seen drunk!
220What factors helped changes peoples attitudes towards the police? Q 21What factors helped changes peoples attitudes towards the police?
221A 21 They were given better training. Their contribution of 1851 Great exhibition.People perceived there to be a reduction in crime.Over time people saw the benefit of the police and began to respect what they were doing.
223A 22A form of protest.This is usually violent and often disorganised.It can result in damage to property or people.
224What were the causes of the Peterloo massacre? Q 23What were the causes of the Peterloo massacre?
225A 23 Poverty Democracy Concern of Revolution Lack of jobs following the end of the Napoleonic war.Increased food prices.DemocracyPeople were not happy with the amount of power that land owners had.People also did not like the uneven distribution of people with the right to vote.Concern of RevolutionRevolutions had happened in France and the government were tense that it may also happen in England.
226What happened at Peterloo? Q 24What happened at Peterloo?
227A 24 A large number of people met at Peters Field, Manchester. They were led by Henry Hunt.They wanted to express their dissatisfaction.The Government had ordered the militia NOT to arrest Henry Hunt as they thought this may cause a riot.Despite their instructions the militia did attempt to arrest Hunt. This caused outrage and violence broke out.
228What were the outcomes of the Peterloo massacre? Q 25What were the outcomes of the Peterloo massacre?
229A 25Short term:7 people were killed400 people were injuredLong term the government introduced new legislation due to fear of revolution:Possession of weapons bannedNew powers given to magistrates to get trials hurried upMagistrates given power to search homesNew taxes put on newspapers to make them expensivePublic meeting over 50 bannedMarching and weapon practice banned
230What were the causes of the Rebecca Riots? Q 26What were the causes of the Rebecca Riots?
231A 26 Poverty Democracy Social Farmers being asked to pay tolls on main trade route roads.Increased food prices.DemocracyPeople in West Wales wanted to be represented by Welsh people.SocialMany of the people involved in these Riots felt repressed by people who were either English or just generally higher in society than they were.
232What were the Rebecca Riots? Q 27What were the Rebecca Riots?
233A 27 A number of different violent protest. Toll gates were destroyed. Public officials were threatened.Characterised by vandals dressing up as women to avoid identification.The government attempted to put an end to these riots by sending police and soldiers into west Wales to support local law enforcement.
234What were the outcomes of the Rebecca Riots? Q 28What were the outcomes of the Rebecca Riots?
235A 28Short term:7 arrests1 deathLong term the government introduced new legislation in response to the riots:More welsh magistrates were created.Tolls for farmers were reduced.The use of the welsh language was NOT introduced
236Crime and Punishment In the 20th Century Back to topic selection screen
248A 06Following bad press linked to force feeding the government passed a law to release women on hunger strike from prison once they became weak.This made any illness as a result of hunger strikes the woman’s fault.Any wrong doing of any kind committed by the women once she was released would result in further imprisonment
254A 09Following a high re-offending rate of those who had attended Approved schools Youth detention centres were set up.These were less about reforming children and more about punishing them.They were popular, but the re offending rate went from 60% up to 75%.
255General Crime and Punishment Terms Back to topic selection screen
275A 10Execution.This is the punishment for a capital crime.
276Summary Mind Maps Causes of Crime Typical Crimes Back to title slideSummary Mind MapsThe following slides are basic summaries of the 5 main time periods.These mind maps do not show everything you need to know, but do show the time period divided up into the 5 major themes of this development study.These themes are:Causes of CrimeTypical CrimesPolicing (crime prevention)Law & JusticePunishmentClick a time period symbol to jump straight to that map.