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Crime and Punishment Through Time Revision Resource.

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1 Crime and Punishment Through Time Revision Resource

2 Back to title slide Back to title slide

3 Click one of the 5 symbols below to jump to the section you would like to revise. Roman Modern Industrial Early Modern Medieval General Terms

4 Crime and Punishment In Ancient Rome Back to topic selection screen

5 Decimation Q 01

6 Punishment used by the Roman army. If a soldier tried to desert the army and was caught the whole group would be punished. The punishment was the execution of every 10 th soldier. This punishment was a deterrent; designed to put off potential deserters. A 01

7 12 Tables Q 02

8 A set of tablets or signs that outline the 12 sets of Roman laws. Children were taught to read and write by reciting and copying out these laws. They were displayed in public places. If a Roman committed a crime they could not claim that they did not know the laws. A 02

9 Vigiles Q 03

10 One form of Roman Policing. They patrolled the streets at night. Their jobs included: – Fighting fires – Preventing crimes – Capturing run away slaves A 03

11 Urban Cohorts Q 04

12 These were soldiers. They main job was to stop riots and keep order. They did NOT patrol the streets. A 04

13 Praetorian Guard Q 05

14 These were soldiers. They were from the Emperor’s personal guard. They were only called in to protect the emperor if there was an emergency or a riot. A 05

15 Did the Romans try to prevent crime? Q 06

16 On the one hand: – The Vigiles were used to prevent minor crimes at night time. However, on the other hand: – Romans had to catch criminals themselves. – Vigiles only operated at night. – Although there were harsh punishments and the Urban Cohorts as a deterrent, the Romans did not actively try to stop crime from happening. A 06

17 For what crimes could Roman citizens be put to death? Q 07

18 Arson Attacking the Emperor Robbing a temple Stealing Farm animals A 07

19 How were Romans citizens punished for minor crimes? Q 08

20 Whipping Confiscation of goods Fines A 08

21 Why is it difficult for Historians to work out how much crime took place in ancient Rome? Q 09

22 A 09 It is very difficult to work out how much crime took place in ancient Rome because very little documentary (written down) evidence survives from this time period. Without records no one can really know the extent of crime in ancient Rome.

23 Give examples of the types of crime that occurred in Ancient Rome Q 10

24 Assassination Murder Rioting Arson Theft Selling of underweight goods (fraud) A 10

25 Magistrate Q 11

26 Someone who listened to court cases. For minor cases they made the decisions alone. For major cases they listened to cases with a jury. They did not need to be legally trained; they could take advice from layers. A 11

27 Did the Roman legal system spread to their empire? Q 12

28 On the one hand: – Roman citizens, no matter where they lived in the empire, were subject to Roman laws and the same legal protection they could expect at home. – Cases would be heard by a local Magistrate. – Just as in Rome, the Roman Magistrate would only listen to cases brought to him, they would not search for criminals. However, on the other hand: – Non-citizens (for example the native Britons in England) would be tried according to their own customs. A 12

29 Crime and Punishment In Medieval England Back to topic selection screen

30 Saxon Punishments Q 01

31 Blood feud Wergild (and other fines) Mutilation Execution Prison (only to hold before a trial, not as a long term punishment). A 01

32 Blood Feud Q 02

33 This was a punishment against violent crimes. If you committed a crime against a member of another family a blood feud would exist between your families. This would result in the victims family taking ‘revenge’ on the other family. If however the revenge was seen as more violent than the original crime this would result in further revenge. This cycle could go on for generations. A 02

34 Wergild Q 03

35 ‘Blood Money’ this was paid to someone as a form of compensation of the damage they had made to a persons. The amount depended on what part of the victim had been damaged. For example you would have to pay 50 shillings if you knocked out someone’s eye or 6 shillings if you broke their arm. This replaced the blood feud. This was a SAXON punishment. A 03

36 Why was Wergild better than the blood feud? Q 04

37 A 04 The Wergild was better than the Blood Feud because this new form of punishment by fines discouraged further violence unlike the Blood Feud which promoted further violence. The overall result was a reduction in violent crime.

38 Mutilation Q 05

39 To have a part of the body cut off. A common punishment for re-offenders. A 05

40 The ‘hue and cry’ Q 06

41 A 06 A form of Saxon and Norman policing. If someone saw a crime being committed they had to cry out to their fellow villagers for help. The villagers would then collectively attempt to catch the criminal and bring him before the local lord.

42 Tithing Q 07

43 A 07 A form of Saxon and Norman policing. In a village the adult men (Over 12 years old) were members of a group of 10 (the tithing) The 10 men were then responsible for each others’ behaviour. If one of them broke the law the rest were expected to being that person to justice.

44 Trial by ordeal Q 08

45 Allowing the judgment for a crime to be made by god. There were four main Saxon ordeals: – Trial by fire (or hot iron) – Trial by Cold water – Trial by Hot water – Trial by Sacrament The Normans introduced another ordeal: – Trial by Combat A 08

46 Trial by fire Q 09

47 Usually undertaken by women For this they had to: – Hold a red hot iron bar for either a number of seconds or a number of paces. – Then have their wounds bandaged. – After a number of days their wounds were checked. The outcome: – If their wounds began to heal God had deemed them innocent. – If their wounds had not begun to heal God had deemed them guilty. A 09

48 Trial by Hot Water Q 10

49 Usually undertaken by men For this they had to: – Take an item from the bottom of a container of boiling hot water. – Then have their wounds bandaged. – After a number of days their wounds were checked. The outcome: – If their wounds began to heal God had deemed them innocent. – If their wounds had not begun to heal God had deemed them guilty. A 10

50 Trial by Cold Water Q 11

51 Usually undertaken by men (only used for witches centuries later) For this they had to: – Be placed in a local lake or pond. The outcome: – If they went under the water (which represented purity) they were considered innocent. – If they floated (rejected by the pure water) they were considered guilty. A 11

52 Trial by Sacrament Q 12

53 Usually undertaken by priests For this they had to: – Pray for a blessed piece of bread to choke them if they were guilty. – Then try to eat the bread. The outcome: – If they did choke on the bread they were guilty. – If they did not choke on the bread they were not guilty. A 12

54 Trial by Combat Q 13

55 Introduced by the Normans Usually undertaken by men For this they had to: – Fight their accuser, or pay someone to fight for them. – This was either to the death or until one part gave in. The outcome: – The winner was considered to have the protection of God and was therefore innocent. – The loser was not protected by God and was therefore guilty. A 13

56 Why did they use trial by Ordeal? Q 14

57 A 14 Criminals were usually tried by a Jury of people that they knew. Trial by ordeal was used if the jury could not decide on the guilt or innocence of the person. They would then use an ordeal to allow God to make the judgement.

58 What did the Normans change/introduce ? Q 15

59 Feudal System Murdrum fines Forrest Laws French language for written laws Trial by Combat Fines paid to King not the victim The status of women in law was reduced A 15

60 What did the Normans keep the same? Q 16

61 Tithings Hew & cry Trial by jury (before ordeal) Trial by ordeal (after a jury failed to make a decision) A 16

62 Why do you think William I wanted to make changes to Saxon law? Q 17

63 A 17 On the one hand he made some changes because: – He wanted to make sure the Normans were in control after the conquest. Changes such as the forest laws, using Norman French and the Murdum fines are good examples. – He also changed some of the punishments (such as paying fines to the King) to make sure everyone knew that he was now in control. However, on the other hand he kept some things the same because: – He wanted people to understand the laws, too much change would have left too much confusion. – He did not want to upset too many people and cause more rebellion.

64 Murdrum Fine Q 18

65 If a Norman was killed by a Saxon this was know not as murder but as Murdrum. If the guilty party could not be found the whole village had to share in a large fine. This would encourage people in the village to come forward if they knew who had committed the crime. A 18

66 Forrest Laws Q 19

67 Forests that were protected by this law could only be hunted in by Normans. The trees could not be cut down for fuel or buildings. People who lived in the forest could not own bows. If caught hunting in these forests the punishment was blinding! A 19

68 Q 20

69 A 20 This was a system used by William the Conqueror to control the country by giving out land in exchange for loyalty.

70 How did the use of the French language help control the Saxons? Q 21

71 A 21 Writing the laws using the French language helped control the Saxons as it excluded Saxons from understanding written laws or contributing to any new written laws. This helped the Normans to stay in control.

72 Which King is most associated with Court reform and ‘Royal Justice’ in the later middle ages? Q 22

73 Henry II A 22

74 What would you associate with ‘Royal Justice’? Q 23

75 Justices of the Peace (JP’s) The Kings Peace County Gaols Travelling Justices Jury by ‘Writ’ County Coroners A 23

76 Justice of the Peace (JP) Q 24

77 Originally 3-4 JP’s were appointed for each county. They were from the Gentry (the lords/Knights) They were responsible for keeping peace. They had the power to: – Fine – Arrest & Bind – Hear local cases in small courts 4 time each year A 24

78 Kings Peace Q 25

79 This was originally an area around the king, or the roads that he was travelling on. If a crime was committed in the area designated as ‘the Kings Peace’ then the punishments were considerably more harsh. This was designed to deter criminals from committing crime near to the King. Henry II decided to extend these rules to the whole country, not just directly around him. A 25

80 County Gaols Q 26

81 Gaols were built in each county to punish criminals. A 26

82 Travelling Justices Q 27

83 If you wanted the King to hear your case then you would have to follow him around, this could take a long time. The Travelling Justices were Judges given the right to hear cases in the Kings place. This increased the number of cases that could be heard at a given time. A 27

84 Jury by ‘Writ’ Q 28

85 If you did not want to have your case decided by Ordeal you could pay for a ‘Writ’. This gave the person the right to have their case heard in the Kings court and have the verdict given by a Jury. When trial by Ordeal was ended in 1215 everyone had to be tried by Jury, which meant that king raised a lot of money through the purchase of Writs. A 28

86 County Coroner Q 29

87 These were people who were responsible for investigating sudden or unusual deaths. They also dealt with those in sanctuary. A 29

88 Do you think that Royal Justice helped improve the legal system? Q 30

89 A 30 On the one hand: – Many of the decisions of law and justices were taken away from the local lords who knew their communities best. However, on the other hand: – Writs and JP’s fines raised money for the king. – Travelling justices made legal processes quicker. – Jury’s made verdicts more fair. – Corrupt local lords who would have ignored the kings laws could no longer do so.

90 What two things were offered by the Church courts? Q 31

91 Benefit of the Clergy Sanctuary A 31

92 Benefit of the Clergy Q 32

93 The Church would try any churchman in their own courts This was originally designed for the Clergy. Eventually anyone remotely connected to the church claimed the right to be tried by the church as they were seen as less harsh. This annoyed the king as he felt that the church was too soft and too many people were getting off lightly. A 32

94 Sanctuary Q 33

95 If you were on the run from the law and you got to a church you could claim sanctuary. This meant that you could not be arrested. You could only claim sanctuary if you had committed certain crimes and the list of crimes got shorter and shorter over the years. Eventually you would have to meet with the County Coroner. When you confessed you were given the option to ‘abjure’ (leave the country). A 33

96 Shari’ah Law Q 34

97 This is Islamic Law based on the teachings of the Qur’an The Qur’an sets out strict rules and punishments that must be given for particular crimes. It was up to the Qadi judges to interpret the Qur’an and decide upon the correct punishment. A 34

98 What were the aims of Islamic Punishments? Q 35

99 To deter future criminals To teach the criminals a lesson To provide a degree of revenge to the victims and their family. This also prevented families trying to take revenge themselves and getting involved in generations of feuding (much like the Saxon blood feuds). A 35

100 Do you think religion made punishment harsh and bloody? Q 36

101 A 36 On the one hand: – Trial by ordeal left the choice up to God and these trials were considerably harsh and bloody. However, on the other hand: – The church courts were seen as too soft on criminals. – Islamic Shari’ah law is designed to make punishment fair for everyone.

102 What did the Manor Courts deal with? Q 37

103 Disputes between members of a village The village Reeve would bring the cases to the Manor court every 3-4 weeks. The Lord/Lady of the Manor would then pass judgement. This dealt with many of the minor issues that arose from villagers being so closely interconnected in their daily lives. A 37

104 What could medieval women own? Q 38

105 Nothing! Their father or Husband owned all of their possessions. The only women who could own anything were Widows who had been left something by their husband to support them. A 38

106 What was prejudice towards women based on? Q 39

107 The church taught that women were inferior to men. A 39

108 How were medieval women treated differently to men? Q 40

109 They could not marry without permission. They could be divorced but could not choose to divorce. They could not own property. They were paid less for the same work as men. They could not become MP’s, Doctors, or Priests. They could not got to university. A 40

110 What is Robin Hood most famous for? Q 41

111 Stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. A 41

112 Why might medieval peasants like Robin Hood? Q 42

113 A 42 Peasants would have liked Robin Hood because all of the things he was said to do; steal from the rich, be an outlaw, hunt in the forests, were things that ordinary people wanted to do. They would have enjoyed hearing stories of the Sheriff being out witted and stolen from by a peasant.

114 Crime and Punishment In Early Modern England Back to topic selection screen

115 What crimes became typically associated with the early modern period? Q 01

116 Vagabonds Highwaymen Smugglers Poachers A 01

117 What impact did the printing press have on peoples perceptions of crime? Q 02

118 A 02 The printing press affected peoples perceptions because it allowed information to pass on more freely. This meant that although crime rates did not necessarily increase more people knew it was happening. It also made certain crime more high profile because they could be reported on.

119 What factors made Early Modern England different from the Medieval period? Q 03

120 Population growth Greater gap between rich and poor Changing religious ideas Increased travel Heavier taxation Increased power of land owners The printing press Political change A 03

121 Vagabond Q 04

122 A poor person, perhaps a beggar, tramp or vagrant (homeless person) A 04

123 What were the main causes of Poverty? Q 05

124 Increased population lead to fewer jobs Increased price of food left people with less money After Henry VII banned the barons from having private armies many soldiers lost their jobs. After Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries there was less charity available to poor people. A 05

125 What crimes were connected to Vagabonds? Q 06

126 Theft Grifting (scamming people – e.g. Bristlers would use loaded dice to con people out of their money) Violence (e.g. The Baretop Tricksters would lure people to a violent gang to be robbed. Also ex-soldiers known as Rufflers would beat people up for money. A 06

127 1601 Poor Law Q 07

128 Elizabeth I created laws to: – Help poor people with money from taxes – Reduce begging A 07

129 How were the poor punished before the 1601 poor law? Q 08

130 3 days in the stocks Under Henry VII Whipping Under Henry VIII Branded with a ‘V’ Made slaves for two year Under Edward VI Execution for repeat offenders A 08

131 Impotent poor Q 09

132 Those who could not work because of age or disability as defined by the 1601 poor law. These people were supported by donations of money and food collected from the local village by the JP. A 09

133 Able-bodied poor Q 10

134 Those who could work and wanted to work as defined by the 1601 poor law. The money from the Poor rate was used to help these people by funding apprenticeships and by setting up work houses where people could get paid for doing very basic tasks. A 10

135 Rogues & Vagabonds Q 11

136 Those who could work but instead chose to beg to make money as defined by the 1601 poor law. These people were punished by whipping in the first instance, then by prison and finally by execution if they continued to beg. A 11

137 Heretic Q 12

138 Someone who commits a transgression against the established religion. A heretic is someone in conflict with the established religion. A 12

139 How did Mary I typically punish heretics? Q 13

140 They were burnt at the stake. A 13

141 How tolerant was Elizabeth I towards different religions? Q 14

142 England was a Protestant country under Elizabeth I. She was generally tolerant towards Catholics in the early part of her reign as long as they did not practice their religion in public. After a number of plots to over throw her she became much less tolerant towards Catholics in the latter part of her reign, Catholic mass was banned and the public practice of Catholicism was punished in the same way as treason. A 14

143 What was the Gunpowder plot? Q 15

144 A 1605 plot to blow up the houses of parliament with the intention of killing King James I. The Catholic plotters wanted to assassinate the Protestant King. One of the plotters, Guy Fawkes, was caught before the explosives were set. He was tortured to get information on the other plotters then brutally executed for high treason. A 15

145 Puritan Q 16

146 A strict Protestant A 16

147 What things did Oliver Cromwell ban? Q 17

148 Celebrating Christmas Celebrating Easter Drunkenness Swearing Closed brothels Sport on Sundays Theatres Make up Mending dresses on a Sunday A 17

149 Why did Cromwell ban so many fun things? Q 18

150 A 18 Oliver Cromwell banned many fun things because as a Puritan he felt that people must focus completely on God, Jesus and the Bible’s teachings. It was considered that the fun things that he banned would have distracted people from this pure focus on their religion.

151 How do you identify a witch? Q 19

152 Usually women, but not necessarily Old widowed women Those with cats or other small pets Those with prominent warts or moles A 19

153 Matthew Hopkins Q 20

154 Usually women, but not necessarily Old widowed women Those with cats or other small pets Those with prominent warts or moles A 20

155 How did the Witch Finder General try to prove women were witches? Q 21

156 By piercing warts/moles to look for signs of pain. Dunking women in the river in the same way as trial by cold water. By walking them up and down for hours, even days until they confess. Many confessed rather than go through the torture that they knew would happen if they did not. A 21

157 Why did the number of people convicted of witchcraft increase in this period? Q 22

158 A 22 The number of people convicted of witchcraft in this period increased because this was a time of religious change an people were quick to blame any strange activities on the devils influence. Also increased travel and media such as the printing press allowed stories to get passed around quickly and possible be misinterpreted.

159 Highwaymen Q 23

160 Someone who would rob travellers in the carriages. A 23

161 Gentleman Robber Q 24

162 A idealised description of a Highwayman. These Highwaymen were considered to have a moral code; asking their victims to ‘stand and deliver’. This was essentially a warning before they were robbed to allow them to get away unharmed. A 24

163 Why did Highway robberies increase in the 18 th century? Q 25

164 More people were travelling on the roads. Horses were cheaper. The roads were not policed. Trade between towns meant that more valuable good were being transported. A 25

165 Smugglers Q 26

166 Someone who brings goods in from abroad illegally and then sells them on without paying any tax or duty. A 26

167 Why did people like smugglers? Q 27

168 A 27 People tended to like smugglers because they brought in goods from the new colonies at low prices and were seen to be getting one over on the government and rich land owners that people did not like. This was a very similar to the reason why people liked the idea of Robin Hood.

169 Poacher Q 28

170 Someone who hunted for animals on land where hunting was banned. A 28

171 Why did so many people become poachers? Q 29

172 A 29 So many people became poachers because they had always hunted on the land just continued to do what they had always done after the new law was passed. They therefore became poachers. Many people did not see this as a crime.

173 Bloody Code Q 30

174 This was not a particular law. This was the name given to a set of laws passed that made a huge number of crimes ‘capital offences’. This period of time, during the 18 th century saw the number of capital offences increase from around 50 to over 200. A 30

175 Capital Offence Q 31

176 An offence punishable by death. A 31

177 Do you think the Bloody Code was effective? Q 32

178 A 32 On the one hand: – Many people were convicted and hanged of various crimes. – The law makers wanted to protect their property and this largely ensured that. However, on the other hand: – Many people were pardoned of their crimes as judges did not want to convict people knowing they would be killed. – Public executions actually attracted more crime, drunkenness and theft amongst others. – There were new ideas about punishment emerging, such as Transportation.

179 Crime and Punishment In Industrial Britain Back to topic selection screen

180 What factors make the industrial period different from Early Modern England? Q 01

181 Population grew massively. Many more towns and cities developed. People moved from rural areas to live in the towns and cities. Transport and communication improved greatly. Central government took more responsibility for national issues. Poor harvests increased food prices. The way people worked and the jobs they did began to change following the industrial revolution. A 01

182 Prison Reform Q 02

183 Changes made to the way prisons were operated and organised. A 02

184 Elizabeth Fry Q 03

185 A Quaker woman living in She went into women’s prisons and did not like what she saw: – 300 women in one room – Fighting and crying – Some with babies – Some were abused by male jailers She spent time teaching new skills to the inmates and campaigning for better conditions. A 03

186 What was the impact of Elizabeth Fry? Q 04

187 She influenced the contents of the 1825 Gaols act which provided: – Separate gaols for men and women with gender appropriate staff. – Prisoners were provided with food, clothing and bedding. – A system of prison visits was set up to ensure standards were maintained. A 04

188 Why was John Howard an important man? Q 05

189 A 05 John Howard was an important man in the 1770 because he campaigned for prisons to be a place of reform rather than just punishment. He wanted people to leave prisons as better, changed people. Some of his ideas included separate cells and clean prisons.

190 Why was Samuel Romiley an important man? Q 06

191 A 06 Samuel Romilly was an important man in the late 18 th century because he campaigned for a reduction of the death penalty for minor crimes. During the 17 th & 18 th centuries the bloody code and increased the number of capital offences dramatically. Not long after Romilly’s death murder and treason were the only capital offences left.

192 Transportaion Q 07

193 A punishment whereby the convicts were taken (typically) to Australia to serve out their sentence. Once transported they were assigned to a settler who would take them on essentially as a slave. Once their sentences was complete the ex- prisoner would have to pay their own way back to England. A 07

194 Hulk Q 08

195 Ex-navy ships used as holding prisons until there were enough convict to fill a transport ship. A 08

196 Why was transportation used? Q 09

197 It was seen as a more moderate punishment than execution but more harsh than flogging. A typical sentence was 7 years. Prisoners were transported to America but following the war of independence they began to transport to Australia instead. A 09

198 Was the use of transportation successful? Q 10

199 A 10 On the one hand: – It did provide a compromise between execution and minor punishments like fines and whipping. – When prisons were still like medieval dungeons, before the reforms, it was considered to be a more humane option. However, on the other hand: – It separated families. – Australian citizens began to get annoyed that their home was being used as a dumping ground. – New prisons in the UK were adequate and cheaper. – Some people saw transportation as a soft option.

200 Describe an early 19 th Century prison Q 11

201 All convicts of all crimes were kept together. Gaols were dirty and damp. Most prisons were overcrowded. Many inmates died of ‘Gaol Fever’ most likely dysentery. Prison staff were not paid, they made their money by charging prisoners for almost everything. A 11

202 The First Reform Act 1820 Q 12

203 After the reform act prisons were: – Cleaner – No pets were allowed in the prisons – Prison staff had to be paid – Inmates had to be separated in to appropriate groups (e.g. women together, murderers separate from the petty thieves etc..) – Prisons were checked by magistrates. A 12

204 Borstal Q 13

205 This was correction facility specifically designed for children. The first one was open in 1902 in Borstal Kent. This was the first time children were separated from adult criminals. A 13

206 What impact did the 1870 Education act have on juvenile crime? Q 14

207 A 14 In introduction of the 1870 Education Act reduced juvenile crime because it meant that children would be in school. With more children in school (and therefore off the streets) in the day they were less able and likely to break the law.

208 The Separate System Q 15

209 Prisoners were not allowed to see each other. They were kept in separate cells, and even separated from each other during services in chapel. This was extended solitary confinement. This did result in mental breakdowns and even suicide. A 15

210 The Silent System Q 16

211 By the 1860’s many people felt that reform was making prisons a soft option. The Silent System was a reaction to this. Prisoners had to endure the following: – Hard labour; doing pointless physical tasks on a daily basis. – Hard fare; eating adequate but monotonous food. – Hard board; hammocks were replaced with hard wood beds. All of the above was done in silence, breaking this rule would result in flogging. A 16

212 The Bow Street Runners Q 17

213 Early form of organised police in London. These were paid and trained men with the job of policing the streets of the inner London area. Bow street was where the magistrates court was and this acted as a sort of police station for the Bow Street Runners. A 17

214 Metropolitan Police Act 1829 Q 18

215 This act formally created the Metropolitan police that we still have today. This was set up by Home Secretary Sit Robert Peel. The original ‘met’ police force covered an area of 7miles around the centre of London. The became known as ‘Peelers’ after Robert Peel. A 18

216 Why did people need a police force? Q 19

217 People were afraid of crime. The old system of watchmen was no longer adequate. Larger cities needed a different type of crime prevention. Fear of revolution as had happened in France. Government was getting more involved in directly affecting life in Britain. Robert Peel championed the idea as Home Secretary. A 19

218 Why was there initial hostility towards the police? Q 20

219 A 20 Initially there was hostility towards the new police force because there had never been a group of people actively monitoring what people were doing to see if it was criminal or not. This was seen as interfering with peoples’ liberties as citizens. Also they were seen as an expense to the tax payer and the early police were often seen drunk!

220 What factors helped changes peoples attitudes towards the police? Q 21

221 They were given better training. Their contribution of 1851 Great exhibition. People perceived there to be a reduction in crime. Over time people saw the benefit of the police and began to respect what they were doing. A 21

222 Riot Q 22

223 A form of protest. This is usually violent and often disorganised. It can result in damage to property or people. A 22

224 What were the causes of the Peterloo massacre? Q 23

225 Poverty – Lack of jobs following the end of the Napoleonic war. – Increased food prices. Democracy – People were not happy with the amount of power that land owners had. – People also did not like the uneven distribution of people with the right to vote. Concern of Revolution – Revolutions had happened in France and the government were tense that it may also happen in England. A 23

226 What happened at Peterloo? Q 24

227 A large number of people met at Peters Field, Manchester. They were led by Henry Hunt. They wanted to express their dissatisfaction. The Government had ordered the militia NOT to arrest Henry Hunt as they thought this may cause a riot. Despite their instructions the militia did attempt to arrest Hunt. This caused outrage and violence broke out. A 24

228 What were the outcomes of the Peterloo massacre? Q 25

229 Short term: – 7 people were killed – 400 people were injured Long term the government introduced new legislation due to fear of revolution: – Possession of weapons banned – New powers given to magistrates to get trials hurried up – Magistrates given power to search homes – New taxes put on newspapers to make them expensive – Public meeting over 50 banned – Marching and weapon practice banned A 25

230 What were the causes of the Rebecca Riots? Q 26

231 Poverty – Farmers being asked to pay tolls on main trade route roads. – Increased food prices. Democracy – People in West Wales wanted to be represented by Welsh people. Social – Many of the people involved in these Riots felt repressed by people who were either English or just generally higher in society than they were. A 26

232 What were the Rebecca Riots? Q 27

233 A number of different violent protest. Toll gates were destroyed. Public officials were threatened. Characterised by vandals dressing up as women to avoid identification. The government attempted to put an end to these riots by sending police and soldiers into west Wales to support local law enforcement. A 27

234 What were the outcomes of the Rebecca Riots? Q 28

235 Short term: – 7 arrests – 1 death Long term the government introduced new legislation in response to the riots: – More welsh magistrates were created. – Tolls for farmers were reduced. – The use of the welsh language was NOT introduced A 28

236 Crime and Punishment In the 20 th Century Back to topic selection screen

237 The Franchise Q 01

238 Another term for having the right to vote. A 01

239 Sufferage Q 02

240 The process of getting the right to vote A 02

241 Suffragists Q 03

242 A group of women, who in the early 20 th century campaigned for women to have the right to vote. They pursued this through peaceful and political methods. A 03

243 Suffragettes Q 04

244 A group of women, who in the early 20 th century campaigned for women to have the right to vote. They pursued this through violence and civil disobedience. A 04

245 Hunger Strikes Q 05

246 When the suffragettes were arrested for their actions many of them would choose not to eat in prion as a continued form of protest. A 05

247 Cat and Mouse Act Q 06

248 Following bad press linked to force feeding the government passed a law to release women on hunger strike from prison once they became weak. This made any illness as a result of hunger strikes the woman’s fault. Any wrong doing of any kind committed by the women once she was released would result in further imprisonment A 06

249 Juvenile Court Q 07

250 Specific court set up to deal with criminal cases involving children. A 07

251 Approved School Q 08

252 Schools set up for criminal children. These were based on the model of the borstal schools. A 08

253 Youth detention Q 09

254 Following a high re-offending rate of those who had attended Approved schools Youth detention centres were set up. These were less about reforming children and more about punishing them. They were popular, but the re offending rate went from 60% up to 75%. A 09

255 General Crime and Punishment Terms Back to topic selection screen

256 Deterrent Q 01

257 When a crime is punished in a harsh way to put people off re-offending or to put others off committing the same crime. A 01

258 Reform Q 02

259 This means to change. Many people want punishments to be designed to reform (or change) people so they become better citizens. A 02

260 Police Q 03

261 People who’s job it is to prevent crime or in some cases catch criminals after an offence has been committed. A 03

262 Jury Q 04

263 A group of people who are responsible for reaching a decision of guilty or not guilty in a court case. A 04

264 Criminal Case Q 05

265 A case that involves someone who has broken an established law. They are considered criminals. Examples would include theft, murder or arson. A 05

266 Civil Case Q 06

267 Disputes between two parties or two people who want the law to decide. These are not criminal cases, no laws have been broken. Examples would be land disputes or divorce. A 06

268 Abolish Q 07

269 To get rid of something. For example when slavery was banned the legal ability to own a slave was abolished. A 07

270 Incarceration Q 08

271 To be kept in a prison of some sort. A 08

272 Treason Q 09

273 To commit a crime against the state or the King/Queen. A 09

274 Capital Punishment Q 10

275 Execution. This is the punishment for a capital crime. A 10

276 Summary Mind Maps The following slides are basic summaries of the 5 main time periods. These mind maps do not show everything you need to know, but do show the time period divided up into the 5 major themes of this development study. These themes are: Causes of Crime Typical Crimes Policing (crime prevention) Law & Justice Punishment Click a time period symbol to jump straight to that map. Back to title slide Back to title slide

277 Back to map selection





282 Back to title slide Back to title slide






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