Presentation on theme: "“This century … like a golden age has restored to light the liberal arts, which were almost extinct: grammar, poetry, rhetoric, painting, sculpture, architecture,"— Presentation transcript:
“This century … like a golden age has restored to light the liberal arts, which were almost extinct: grammar, poetry, rhetoric, painting, sculpture, architecture, and music.”
Renaissance man excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, poet figures = forceful, powerful, heroic explored human potential (humanism) St. Peter’s Basilica (church) = dome model for U.S. Capitol building in Washington D.C. David & Pieta= classical sculptures Sistine Chapel = painted ceiling laid on his back on scaffold to paint for 4 years
commissioned by the guild of the wool merchants he stands in contraposto, a classic Greek representation of heroes Michelangelo was fascinated by the nude male body Galleria dell’ Accademia, Florence
sculpture of youthful Mary holding dead Christ across lap finished before he was 25 years old the only work of art that Michelangelo ever signed, which he later regretted regarded as the greatest work of sculpture ever created Pietà
Renaissance Man = world genius (See clip) (See clip) painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist Mirror writing = mysterious notebooks wrote backwards interested in how things worked muscle movement, veins of leaves, etc… Mona Lisa What was she thinking behind that smile? The Last Supper (religious painting) Christ & apostles on the night before his crucifixion recently restored due to decaying & use of experimental paint
Vitruvian man by Leonardo is an illustration of the human body inscribed in the circle and the square derived from a passage about geometry and human proportions in Vitruvius's writings (1 st century BC)
Embryo in the womb (c. 1510) Circulatory system
learned from studying the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo Madonna and the Child School of Athens shows classical influence of the Renaissance combination of classical/Renaissance figures Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Averroës (Arab phil.) died at the age of 37 Romans, pope, court = mourning
Raphael- 2 nd from right Pythagoras Michelangelo PlatoAristotle Diogenes Euclid Leonardo da Vinci
After a slow recovery from the devastating Black Death, northern Europe joined in the Renaissance that had earlier swept Italy. Northern artists and writers imitated Italian styles while adding new methods and ideas of their own. As a result of the new Gutenberg Printing Press- people were exposed to new ideas that spread quickly. More people began to learn and read. Music Video
“For thousands of years, Europeans had copied all of their scrolls and books by hand. Most of these works were found in monasteries and Church libraries. Block printing was invented in China and introduced to Europe in the 1300s, but this method was very slow. Johann Gutenberg developed a movable type in Germany around 1450. The invention of a movable type, along with the use of a special press and oil-based inks, allowed the mass production of printed books for the first time.” [c. Jarrett, Zimmer, Killoran] IMPACT: FACILITAED THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS & MORE PEOPLE BEGAN TO READ…
Objective Explain the relationship among Christianity, individualism, and growing secularism that began with the Renaissance and how the relationship influenced subsequent political developments and the Protestant Reformation
Church caught up in secular affairs: The Catholic Church had fallen into practice of selling INDULGENCES INDULGENCES – pardon from punishment for committing a sin, allowing the sinner to enter Heaven Indulgences made a lot of Pope was using a lot of money to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome Video Clip
Sir Thomas Moore (English) Sought Reform within the Church, but leaders where slow to respond Wanted more equality for women Erasmus (Dutch) Developed new methods of criticizing texts, that lead him to question the Church Many Christians protested these indulgences & urged a return to the simpler ways of the Church. They stressed Bible study & rejected secularism
“I am rough, boisterous, stormy, and altogether warlike.” The selling of indulgences (woodcut, c. 1530)
Luther nailed his 95 Theses on October 31, 1517 Sparking the Protestant Reformation Luther argued indulgences had no basis in the Bible The pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory Christians could be saved ONLY through faith (justification by faith) – God can only save Copies were printed & distributed across Europe Believed that each individual must read and understand the Bible to achieve this faith The Church told Luther to recant – he refused & got more radical
Decet Romanum Pontificem, the Papal bull excommunicating Luther. The Latin title means "It Pleases the Roman Pontiff." Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther in 1521
Pope will Excommunicate him – Kick Out Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) summons him & orders him to RECANT at the DIET (assembly) of Worms Luther refuses & is declared an outlaw German princes saw Lutheranism as a way to get rid of Church rule & the Holy Roman emperor Luther will appeal to their German Patriotism, to stop sending German $$$ to Italian Leaders Luther will live under their protection
Only Baptism & communion are allowed Only Baptism & communion are allowed Banned indulgences, confessions, pilgrimages, & prayers to saints Banned indulgences, confessions, pilgrimages, & prayers to saints Simplified mass & emphasized the sermon Simplified mass & emphasized the sermon Permitted the clergy to marry Permitted the clergy to marry Translated the New Testament into German for all to read Translated the New Testament into German for all to read Vernacular Vernacular These reformers will be known as “PROTESTANTS” These reformers will be known as “PROTESTANTS” Northern Europe will adopt “Protestantism” Northern Europe will adopt “Protestantism” German Princes use this as an opportunity to seize Church lands & close monasteries. German Princes use this as an opportunity to seize Church lands & close monasteries.
Peasants followed Luther to gain his support for social & economic change Peasants followed Luther to gain his support for social & economic change Peasants rebelled to call for an end to serfdom & other changes to their harsh lives Peasants rebelled to call for an end to serfdom & other changes to their harsh lives Luther did not support the rebels because he favored social order & respect for political authority Luther did not support the rebels because he favored social order & respect for political authority Luther denounced the violence Luther denounced the violence Nobles (with Luther’s support) stopped the rebellion Nobles (with Luther’s support) stopped the rebellion More than 10,000 killed & many more left homeless More than 10,000 killed & many more left homeless
Two beliefs followed Luther’s teachings: 1) believed that salvation was gained through faith alone (justification by faith) 2) the Bible is the ONLY source of religious truth One belief diverged from Luther: PREDESTINATION PREDESTINATION: the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation Calvinists believed the world was divided into two kinds of people Saints & Sinners Calvinists tried to live like saints because only the saved could live truly Christian lives
End of Religious Unity: The religious unity of Western Europe, which had lasted for a thousand years, was shattered forever. Europe’s religious differences led to a century of warfare between Protestants & Catholics Persecution: Rulers tried to ensure that their subjects were all of one faith. This often led to the persecution of minorities, including Jews. Growth of Royal Power: Without a powerful central church, the power of European kings began to grow.. In England, King Henry VIII broke with the Pope and became head of the Church of England in 1534.
Held to redefine Catholic beliefs & to stop the spread of Protestantism. The Council ended the sale of indulgences. The Council of Trent (1545 – 1563) Used by Church officials to end heresy by force. Trials were held to examine, often by torture, those who denied or opposed Church teachings. (See Flying Circus!)(See Flying Circus!) The Inquisition Began by Ignatius Loyola in 1534, were dedicated to defending and spreading the Catholic faith. The Jesuits
execution of a witch by pressing tied & suspended above a fire hanging to prolong the suffering burning, tearing of flesh by dogs, & the wheel breaking with the wheel flogging & disembowelment
In general, France, Italy, Spain, and Southern Germany remained Catholic. Northern Germany, Holland, England and Scandinavia became Protestant. Wars between Catholics and Protestants began in the 1520s and lasted for more than a century. During the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), as many as one- third of the German population was killed.
In 1528, King Henry VIII asked the pope to annul, or cancel, his marriage. With the Act of Supremacy in 1534, Henry took the Church from the pope’s control and created the Church of England.
1536 -1540: monasteries & convents were found to be centers of immorality Henry closed them & confiscated the land & wealth (almost 1/3 of England) to gain support for the new Anglican Church, he gave lands to nobles to gain their loyalty Henry wasn’t a religious radical he rejected most Protestant doctrine he kept most Catholic forms of worship Henry didn’t want to create a new religion (or church), he just wanted to get rid of a wife. Canterbury Cathedral
"King Henry the Eighth, to six wives he was wedded: One died, one survived, two divorced, two beheaded.“ or Divorced-killed-died, divorced-killed- survived.
Determined to return England to Catholicism Hundreds of Protestants are burned at the stake
Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Became queen in 1558 at the age of 25 Restored Protestantism to England Defeated the Spanish Armada Solidified England as a major naval power
Elizabethan Settlement restored unity Made England a strong Protestant nation Helped England avoid the wars that tore apart the rest of Europe Video: Gravelines Speech Video: Gravelines Speech Video: Gravelines Battle (Defeat of Spanish Armada) Video: Gravelines Battle
Artistic Impact: Different styles of art emerged in Catholic and Protestant countries. Catholic art glorified Jesus, Mary & the Saints Many Protestants felt it was wrong to depict God & specialized in landscapes or “still life” scenes. Economic Impact: In Northern Europe, the Church no longer collected taxes, stimulating economic growth. Religious wars resulted in widespread destruction, BUT also stimulated economies by creating a need for new goods. c. Jarrett, Zimmer, Killoran