Presentation on theme: "I can evaluate the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation."— Presentation transcript:
1I can evaluate the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation. Unit 2: The ReformationI can explain how ideas of (humanism) affected people’s perspectives during the Reformation.I can evaluate the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation.I can explain how the development of the printing press influenced the spread of religious ideas and the Reformation.I can describe the reforms made by the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation.I can describe the impact the Inquisition had on the Reformation and Counter- Reformation.
2READING CHECK: Introduction What religion was western Europe during the Renaissance?What was one reason for the weakening of the Catholic Church?What were some of the problems people had with the Church?Christian - CatholicIntroductionHumanism of the Renaissance [spirit of questioning]Worldliness & Corruption [questionable money raising practices; popes concerned with power & wealthy]
3What is the Protestant Reformation? Early 1500s – Late 1600sBefore Reformation, ALL Christians were Roman CatholicThe [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic ChurchThe Reformation caused a split in Christianity caused a massive shift in the religious framework of Europe!
4What was the Protestant Reformation? CHRISTIANITYPROTESTANTCATHOLIC
5KEY IDEAS of the Reformation: A call to purify the church &Belief that the Bible, not tradition, should be the only source of spiritual authority
6How did the Roman Catholic Church control daily life in medieval Europe? How did this control effect the population?
7Causes of the Reformation I can evaluate the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation.The Black Death.Scientific Advances, which contradicted the ChurchThe Corruption within the Catholic ChurchHumanism – focus on human potential and achievements.Often SECULAR (nonreligious)Spirit of questioningI can explain how ideas of (humanism) affected people’s perspectives during the Reformation
8Section 2: The Weakening of the Catholic Church READING CHECK:Name three factors, besides selling indulgences, that contributed to the weakening of the Catholic Church.Popes became entangled in political disputes that prompted many to question the popes’ authority.The Great Schism lessened people’s respect for the papacy.The Catholic Church sold offices in a practice called simony.Section 2: The Weakening of the Catholic Church
9Critical Vocabularyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=un2qxIlqLP8Indulgence – a grant by the Catholic Church that released a person from punishment for sins.Simony – the selling and buying of positions in the Catholic ChurchGreat Schism (Western Schism) split within the Catholic Church ( ), driven by politics, when several men claimed to be the true pope at the same time. This hurt the reputation of the office.
10Critical VocabularySaints – someone officially recognized as holy by the Catholic ChurchPope – the universal leader of the Catholic Church (Vatican City)
11READING CHECK: Section 3: Early Calls For Reform What teachings and actions of John Wycliffe led the pope to accuse him of heresy?What reforms did Jan Hus call for?In what way did Catherine of Siena’s approach to faith help prepare people for the Reformation?Who was Desiderius Erasmus? How did he help to prepare Europe for the Reformation?READING CHECK:Wycliffe questioned the pope’s authority and attacked indulgences and immoral behavior by clergy. He said the Bible, not the Church, was the ultimate religious authority. Against Church tradition, he had the Bible translated into English.Section 3: Early Calls For ReformHus wanted to end corruption among the clergy. He also wanted the Bible and the mass to be available in the people’s everyday language, rather than in Latin.Catherine showed that people could lead spiritual lives that went beyond the usual norms of the Church. She emphasized personal experience of God over Church doctrine.Erasmus was a humanist priest who wanted to reform the Church. He wrote The Praise of Folly, a satire of society, including abuses within the Church. His criticism of the Church added to people’s desire to question its teachings.
12Critical VocabularyReformation – a religious reform movement from the early 1500s to the 1600s that led to the formation of new Christian groupsDoctrine – a belief or set of beliefs, especially relating to religionProtestant - a Christian who separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation; today, any member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation.Denomination - a particular religious group within a larger faith; for example, Lutheranism is one denomination within Christianity.
13John WycliffeOpposed teachings of the organized Church – believed they contradicted the BibleMain precursor to the Protestant ReformationFirst one to write the Bible in English – infuriated the Pope44 years after Wycliffe died, the Pope had his bones dug up, crushed, and scattered!
14Jan Hus Follower of Wycliffe – actively promoted his ideas People should be permitted to read Bible in own language & should oppose the tyranny of the Roman Catholic Church“The Hussites”Excommunicated (1411) & burned at the stake (July 6, 1415)“in 100 years, God will raise up a man whose call for reform cannot be suppressed.”
15READING CHECK: Section 4: Martin Luther Breaks Away From The Church Why did Martin Luther write the Ninety- Five Theses and post them on the door of a church in Wittenberg?Compare and contrast Martin Luther’s beliefs with those of the Catholic Church.What happened when Luther was brought before the Diet of Worms?READING CHECK:Luther was outraged by the sale of indulgences. He posted the Ninety-Five Theses to express his ideas about this practice and other issues.Section 4: Martin Luther Breaks Away From The ChurchNEXT SLIDEHe refused to take back his teachings and was declared a heretic by the Holy Roman emperor. The emperor forbade the printing of his writings.
16Compare and contrast Martin Luther’s beliefs with those of the Catholic Church. Salvation came from faithBible = ultimate authorityOwn Priest; Read Bible for selfChurch sacraments had no basis in BibleMartin LutherGood worksPope & Church teachings = ultimate authorityPeople need Priest to interpret the BibleNon-biblical sacraments (marriage)Catholic Church
17Martin LutherOne of the MOST influential people in Christian historyGerman monkFather of ProtestantismHeavily influence Protestant Reformation
18What is Protestantism?A major body of Christianity that denies the universal authority of the Pope
19Martin Luther’s 95 Theses October 31, 1517Posted “Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences” on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg[95 Theses]PURPOSE: invited local scholars to discuss indulgencesNot intended to be a program of reform, BUT to question the practice of indulgences.Ended up being the PRIMARY means of the Protestant Reformation
21Bell Ringer (Answer in your NOTES) What were some of the causes of the Reformation?SocialRenaissance values of humanism and secularism led people to question the churchPrinting Press helped to spread ideas of the ChurchPoliticalPowerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in EuropeMany leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authorityEconomicEuropean princes and kings were jealous of Church’s wealthMerchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the ChurchReligiousSome Church leaders had become worldly and corruptMany people found Church practices such as the sale of indulgences unacceptable
22Martin Luther’s 95 Theses 3 Main Points: Selling indulgences to finance the building of St. Peter’s is wrong.The pope has no power over Purgatory.Purgatory - a place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are expiating their sins before going to heaven.Buying indulgences gives people a false sense of security and endangers their salvation
23Response to LutherExplaining the positions of historical figuresIn your group...read and summarize the reaction of the historical figure assigned to you. (Page 56 – “The Pope’s Threat” and “The Emperor’s Opposition”)
24Historical FigureOpinionLutherThe pope should not be part of the Church anymorePope Leo XIf you don’t change your mind, I will take away your right to membership in the church (excommunicate)Charles VLuther, take back what you have saidNo, I have to do what I believe is rightYou are an outlaw. Nobody in my lands is allowed to help you. All the books you have written will be burnedPrince FrederickI will protect you, Luther.
25What is Protestantism?A major body of Christianity that denies the universal authority of the Pope
26Result of LutherLuther returned to Wittenberg (1522) – many putting his ideas into practice.Decided to form a separate religious group: Lutherans.Germany – many princes supported LutheranismAssert independence from Charles VLuther supporters signed protest against pope loyalistsCharles V – war against Protestant princesDefeated Protestant princes (1547), but failed to return them to Catholic ChurchPEACE OF AUGSBURG – religious settlement: Charles V met with all German princes in Augsburg. Each prince allowed to decide the religion of his state.
27Ended Christian unity in much of Europe Peace Of AugsburgImportance:Ended Christian unity in much of Europe
28READING CHECK: Section 5: Other Leaders of the Reformation Name three factors that helped spread Luther’s reforms across Europe.What two Protestant reformers began new churches in Switzerland?What personal and political reasons led King Henry VIII to split with the Catholic Church?Who was William Tyndale? For what important contribution is he most remembered?READING CHECK:1. People were tired of abuses and ready for change.2. The printing press helped spread Luther’s ideas.3. Government leaders learned they could win independence from the Catholic Church.Section 5: Other Leaders of the ReformationHuldrych Zwingli and John Calvin began new churches in Switzerland.Henry VIII split from the Church so that he could divorce and remarry, and so that he no longer had to share power and wealth with the Church.Tyndale was a priest and scholar who translated books of the Bible into English. He adopted Protestant views and was burned at the stake. His translations were used as a basis for the King James Bible.
29Critical VocabularyPredestination –belief that God has known since the beginning of time who will be savedTheocracy – a government controlled by religious leaders
31England Becomes Protestant King Henry VIII (Tudor) of England – was devout Catholic in 1509 when he became kingWrote attack on Luther’s ideas (1521)Pope gave him title of “Defender of the Faith”Due to political needs, Henry VIII’s faith was tested.Needed male heir (someone who will be the next king), worried of another civil war if he diedWife, Catherine of Aragon, had only given him a girl, MaryHenry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon for a younger wife
32Tracing Religious Changes in England (Page 58-59) King/QueenReligionReasons for Religious BeliefsHenry VIIIEdward VIMary IElizabethhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3m6iSe_xsPM
33Huldrych Zwingli 1484 – 1531 Catholic Priest Started religious reform in SwitzerlandInfluenced by humanism of Desiderius Erasmus & the reforms of Luther1520: Openly attacked the Catholic ChurchCall to more personal faith, people should have more control over the church1531: war between Swiss Protestants and CatholicsZwingli diedHuldrych Zwingli
35JOHN CALVIN Law student from France 1536: wrote “Institutes of the Catholic Religion”Ideas about God, salvation and human natureSummary of Protestant religious beliefs:Men and women are sinful by natureGod chooses a very few people to save & is known from the beginning (Predestination)Calvinism – the religion based on Calvin’s teachingsJOHN CALVIN
36Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland Believed that the ideal government was a theocracy1541: Protestants in Geneva, Switzerland asked Calvin to lead their city. Very strict.Religion classesNo bright clothing or playing cardsPreaching different doctrines = burned at the stake“Model city” of highly moral citizens
37Calvinism Spreads John Knox – Scottish preacher, visited Geneva Put Calvin’s ideas to work in Scotland (1559)Each church was led by group called “elders” or “presbyters”Followers became known as Presbyterians1560s: Calvinism made Scotland’s official religionHuguenots – Calvin’s followers in FranceMany conflicts in France between Huguenots and CatholicsSt. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (Paris, August 24, 1572): most violent clash, Catholic feast of St. Bartholomew. Catholic mobs began hunting down Protestants and murdering them. Went on for 6 months and historians believe around 12,000 Huguenots were killed.Many Protestant churches today trade their roots to Calvin
38Interpreting the Map Page 63 Which European countries became mostly Protestant and which remained mostly Roman Catholic?Judging from the way the religions were distributed, where would you expect religious conflicts to take place? EXPLAIN.Mostly Protestant England, Scotland, Denmark-Norway, SwedenMostly Roman Catholic Ireland, Spain, France, ItalyGerman states, Swiss confederation mixture of faiths