Julius Caesar’s BFF; Caesar was his mother’s cousin Takes the consulship Asked for conspirators to be pardoned (Brutus & Cassius) Public funeral for Caesar and read will Gardens in the city left to poor Granted money to every Roman citizen Mob went wild No, no, no…NOT ME!!! Me you fools!
Julius Caesar’s great nephew – Adopted posthumously through Caesar’s will 18 years old and in Greece at the time of Caesar’s death Finds out he is Caesar’s chief heir Dude!
What?!? How dare he make that pipsqueak his heir… Hmmmm…this is even BETTER! I can manipulate him!
Claimed what was his Issued a call to arms of his father’s veteran’s; soldiers came to his aid Antony fled to Gaul to round up legions Senate thought they could control Octavian too – Make him a senator – Octavian smarter than senate!
Octavian struck first against the Senate: – Occupied Rome with his army – Forced them to revoke amnesty for Brutus and Cassius Then strikes against Antony in Gaul and defeats him Negotiates alliance – Pulled-in Lepidus, a wealthy Roman
Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus – Sealed the deal with marriage: Antony married Octavian’s sister Turned attention to Senate – Forced the Senate to grant all three men consular positions for five years Antony -Gaul Lepidus- Spain Octavian- Africa and Sicily
Instituted a round of proscriptions - 2,300 fled or died – Eliminate political enemies and strip them of their property – Octavian and Antony went to Greece to hunt down Brutus & Cassius Met at Philippi; Octavian and Antony won Brutus and Cassius committed suicide Almost immediately, squeezed out Lepidus – Octavian controls the west (Hispania, Gaul, Italia, & Africa) – Antony controls the east (Greece, Asia, Syria & Egypt) Renewed triumvirate for another 5 years
In 35 Lepidus rebelled – Put down and forced into retirement…then he dies Tensions rise between Octavian & Antony Octavian commanded 45 legions and 500 warships Antony had less, but not worried because he had something else…
Antony thought Egypt would guarantee a victory And…
Cupid hit Antony and Cleopatra with his arrow. One of the greatest love stories in history. Oh no, I’m still married to Octavia.
Antony went too far…Rumors flying: – Starting a second Senate in Egypt – Declared Caesarion as Caesar's legal heir – Gave most of Rome’s eastern lands to Cleopatra Arabia, Cyprus (copper mines), Sinai (turquoise mines), Armenia, North Africa (grain), ports of Phoenicia – Left his possessions to his children by Cleopatra – Wanted to be buried in Alexandria – Married Cleopatra in 32 BC before he divorced Octavia
Note: All scenes featured in the following clip are from the 1963 film Cleopatra starring Elizabeth Taylor…
Let’s Get Ready to Rumble Both positioned self for battle Octavian sought Senate support only to end up chasing away consuls and Senate o Few in Rome objected o Republic truly dead Senate went to Antony in Greece
Antony less men and weaker army, but Cleopatra promised Egyptian navy and a naval victory Egyptians allowed themselves to get trapped in the harbor at Actium Antony and Cleopatra fled; Octavian chased them Eventually, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide when it was hopeless Octavian hunted down all of Cleopatra’s children and killed them