3Section 1 - Growing Tensions Between North and South Find Out:How the abolitionist movement heightened tensions between the North and SouthThe controversies over slavery in the territoriesHow the Wilmot Proviso and potential statehood for California deepened regional divisionsAnalyze the Compromise of 1850
4Rural plantation economy Relied on slave labor 1. What did both the North and the South rely on heavily for their economies? How was it different in the South?Over the centuries, the Northern and Southern sections of the United States had developed into two very different cultural and economic regionsThere were also differences in geography and climate, as well as religious differencesRural plantation economyRelied on slave labor“Peculiar Institution” created tensionSoutherners feared that the loss of slavery would mean loss of cultureBoth the North and the South relied on agriculture but the South relied more on plantation agriculture.Image from an unknown source.James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes.Library of Congress
5THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR 2 THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR 2. What led to the rapid growth of Northern cities? Why did Eastern and Midwestern states develop strong ties with each other?The North had a more diverse economyIndustry flourishedOpenly opposed slavery in the South and the new territoriesMore urbanized than SouthImmigration fueled Northern population growth.Immigrants and Easterners moved west and built farms in the new states formed from the Northwest Territory. They used the canals and railroads that ran mostly east and west.Image from:BOSTON HARBOR
63. Describe how the South developed differently than the North? A few wealthy planters controlled Southern society, making great profits from the labor of slaves. Much of the profit came from trade, especially cotton.4. Most Southern whites were poor farmers who owned no slaves. But even many of the nonslaveholding whites supported slavery because it kept them off the bottom of society.
7Antislavery and racism 5. What view did most abolitionists have of slaveryAntislavery movement gained strength in North since 1830’sAbolitionists felt slavery was unjust and should immediately be abolished (North)
86. Why did many Northern workers and immigrants oppose slavery? It posed an economic threat to them because slaves did not work for pay. They feared managers would employ slaves rather than them or they would become slaves.7. Despite their opposition to slavery, most Northerners, even abolitionists were racist by modern standards.
98. Slaverholders defended slavery 8. Slaverholders defended slavery. Most offered the openly racist argument that white people were superior to blacks. Many also claimed that slavery helped slaves by introducing them to Christianity, as well as providing them with food, shelter, and clothing.
109. What caused new disagreements to arise over slavery in the 1840's? The outbreak of War with Mexico and new territories won from Mexico and the expansion of slavery in the territories caused disagreements in CongressThe issue of whether slavery in California and the West would be legal led to heated debates in CongressGold rush led to application for statehood for CaliforniaImage from:
1111. How did slaveholders feel about Wilmot's Proviso? David Wilmot was a representative from the state of Pennsylvania. He proposed that slavery should not be allowed in any territory won in the War with Mexico. (10)Angry slaveholders protested that the government had no right to tell them what to do with their own property since slaves were considered property. The measure passed the House but failed in the Senate. (11)– Library of Congress Prints and Photographs10. What did David Wilmotpropose?11. How did slaveholders feel about Wilmot's Proviso?Portrait from:
12The Wilmot ProvisoProposed by Penn. Rep. David WilmotMost disagreements settled with Compromise of 1820New land won from Mexico caused tension over spread of slavery for many NorthernersWilmot proposed to outlaw the spread of slavery in any territory won from War with MexicoSoutherners argued that slaves were property
1312. What was an effect of the Wilmot Proviso? Slave holders said the government couldn’t prevent them from taking property anywhere they wantedSaid Wilmot Proviso would be unconstitutionalDivided Congress along regional linesPassed in House of Reps but not in SenateWilmot’s Proviso led to creation of Free Soil Party to stop expansion of slaveryMade slavery a national issue
1413. What did the addition of new states in territories won 13. What did the addition of new states in territories won from Mexico threaten?1848 Nation debates what to do with land won from MexicoAddition of new states threatened balance of power between Northern and Southern statesGold discovered in California would soon cause it to apply for statehood as its population grewMost in California wanted to be a free state and applied in 1850Balance of power between slave and free states would be upset which create an imbalance in Congress, especially the Senate
15COMPROMISE OF 1850 Southerners threatened secession over issue Henry Clay again worked a Compromise (15)For the North: California would be admitted as free state (16)For the South: A more effective fugitive slave law (16)Residents of New Mexico & Utah would vote themselves (16)The slave trade would be abolished in WashingtonD. C.(16)Picture from: The United States Senate, A.DCONGRESSIONAL DEBATEThe United States Senate, A.D – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
16Proposed by Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser) Compromise of 1850Proposed by Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser)California admitted as a free stateSlave trade ended in Washington, D.C.Congress would allow popular sovereignty regarding slavery for the rest of the territories won from MexicoStronger fugitive slave laws passedHenry Clay, known as the Great Compromiser for coming up with the Missouri Compromise of Years and years in the Senate can surely age a man!Picture on left: -->Picture on right: Henry Clay, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing frontHenry Clay – Library of CongressPrints and Photographs
17Daniel Webster supports measure for good of country (17) Compromise of 1850 cont.Northerners now feel they are part of slavery because of fugitive slave lawDaniel Webster supports measure for good of country (17)Bill pushed through by Stephen Douglas of Illinois (17)Many felt the Union was savedLeft Picture: Daniel Webster,Right Picture: [Stephen Arnold Douglas, head-and-shoulders portrait, slightly to leftDaniel Webstersupported theCompromise of1850 for the goodof the country.Stephen Douglashelped his friendHenry Clay bypushing the billthrough Congress.Notes and images from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
19UNDERGROUND RAILROADEscape from slavery was dangerous and meant traveling on foot at nightAs time went on, African Americans and white abolitionists developed a secret network of people who would hide fugitive slaves”Conductors” would hide runaways in tunnels and even cupboardsImage from:
21HARRIET TUBMAN One of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman Tubman escaped slavery and vowed to help others do the sameShe made 19 trips back to South and freed over 300 slaves (Including her own parents)Image from an unknown sourceHARRIET TUBMAN