Presentation on theme: "Social Studies 8 Class Notes Pathways Mr. Bausback"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Studies 8 Class Notes Pathways Mr. Bausback The Middle AgesSocial Studies 8Class NotesPathwaysMr. Bausback
21. Religion & EuropeThree major religions dominated Europe after the fall of Rome:1. Christianity2. Judaism3. Islam
3Christianity Founded by apostles of Jesus Christ in Palestine Believed Christ was the Son of God and savior of the Jewish peopleBelieved in loving God and your neighbor as yourselfOutlawed by the RomansBible outlines world history, story of Christ, and acts as religious text for ChristiansMany branches- Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant;Missionaries and crusades attempted to spread Christianity throughout history.
5Judaism Founded 3000 years ago in Palestine Seen as the chosen people of GodUphold the Ten Commandments given to Mosses from GodThe Torah is the most important holy book; the Talmud establishes guidelines for belief and livingGoal to overcome Diaspora or scattering from Palestine and prosecution throughout history
92. Fall of RomeIn 410 C.E. Rome, the city that centered civilization for Europe for 500 years and stretched from Britain to the Middle East and Europe to north Africa had fallen to the Germanic people (“ Teutones, Anglos, Saxons, Jutes, Goths & Franks) known as Barbarians to the Romans.
10Rome fell because slaves were abused, Romans wasted money on entertainment and other luxury items, contagious diseases brought back by the Legions, tyrannical rule of the Emperors, stronger belief in Christianity and other religions, the sheer size of the Empire and the difficulty in defending this massive Empire.The legacy of the Romans and their Empire continued throughout historic Europe and even the World today (architecture , roads and infrastructure, military and strategy, government & laws, etc)
123. The Barbarians The Franks: As the Roman Empire fell ,the Franks ( meaning free or the franchise) conquered Gaul( France) and waged and won wars throwing their franciscas (axes)The Merovingian Family ruled the Franks under corruption and murderThe Franks put a monetary value (Salien Code) on a person and propertyFranks had social classes with serfs, peasants, farmers, workers, and lords)
13Charlemagne & The Carolingian Empire: Charlemagne or Charles the Great came to power in 768 C.E.Was interested in rebuilding civilization and had the power and intelligence to do this.Was crowned Emperor in 800 C.E. and his empire that controlled most of Central Europe was called the Carolingian Empire or the Holy Roman EmpireGoverned from his palace at Aachen in Germany
14His reforms included: local governments with freedoms; sending out missi dominoci or messengers to ensure people were treated properly; created a single code of laws; improved conditions for serfs and trades people; established schools and improved education in Latin; built churches in France and Germany; promoted a renaissance or rebirth in the arts.He waged wars against the Saxons in the name of ChristianityThe Carolingian Empire suffered from Viking raids
16Anglo-Saxons & The Celts: After the fall of Rome, the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes pushed the Celts out of Britain to Wales, Cornwall , and ScotlandThe Celts had once been a powerful people inhabiting much of Europe from Spain to RussiaThe Anglo-Saxon ( Germanic peoples) or the English eventually dominated BritainAnglo-Saxons were: farmers, industrialists, great storytellers and jewellery sculpturesAnglo-Saxons suffered from the Viking raids
17The Celts practiced Druidism: a pagan religious practice that involved bloody battles, slavery, and human sacrificesSt. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland introduced both Christianity and a healthy respect for learning in the 5th CenturyIreland with all its monastic ( Monastery) communities became the center of learning in EuropeIrish monks played a major role training missionaries and the spread of Christianity and the writing out of texts such as the BibleSt. Brendan was believed to successfully traveled to North America in the 5th Century
19VikingsOriginated from Scandinavia ( Norway, Sweden, & Denmark), the Vikings were farmers and fishermen living in small coastal villages on the end of FjordsMen and women shared in all workWomen did most domestic work and had many rights under the law- own property and sue in courtVikings looked to colonize elsewhere because of their growing population and shortage of good farmlandIn Viking society, landowners owned slaves called thralls that had been taken captive or sold into slavery because of debt; the children of thralls became slaves too.
20Viking culture was rich with skilled woodworkers and sculptures and artwork that paid homage to the great Gods Thor, Odin, and FreyaSkalds were the keepers of Viking legends carried through an oral story-telling traditionLaws were memorized and not written down- the worst punishment was to be declared an “ outlaw” who could be killed by anyone who then could take their possessionsInvaded Paris, the heart of Charlemagne’s Empire in 855War parties mercilessly raided and devastated Low Europe (Netherlands & Belgium), Ireland, and England, Spain and Italy and throughout the Mediterranean while traveling in their long ships
21Raids were savage, severe, and destructive killing all and burning all to the ground\Some monarchs were so frightened that they made payments to the Vikings- Dane geldOnly Charlemagne and Alfred the Great were successful in slowing but not stopping the Viking raidsEventually, in the 11th century (1200’s) monarch became strong enough to fight off Viking threats and the age of the Vikings came to an endEnglish monarchs gave Dane law to Viking Lords who then helped protect Anglo-Saxon Britain from other Viking invaders.
231. Feudalism & The Feudal Contract: In 1066, William the Conqueror of Normandy (Modern Day France) defeated the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings and England and the most of Western Europe came under the control of Norman feudal laws or a social system based on the 3 F’s: Fief- Land, Fealty- Loyalty, Faith- ReligionThe center of feudal life was the manor or self-sufficient community where most people lived out their life as serfs or free land-holdersFeudalism quickly evolved in a social system that established a clearly defined hierarchy within medieval society
24Knights would offer or rent out their land to freeholders or serfs who would then collectively offer their allegiance to the king and his commitment to the Church in the defense of the Christian Holy Lands during the CrusadesUnder feudalism, land- the basis of wealth- was given to nobles, who were all knightsFaithful nobles/knights exchanged their fealty or loyalty to the king for their fiefs or parcels of land
25Knight loyalty was demonstrated in 4 ways: They served in the King’s army for 40 daysThey supplied the King with additional knights in the time of warThey served in the king’s court and advise on political mattersThey had to give the king money on special occasions
26For performing these duties, knights had the right to their monarchs protection and justice Under the feudalism, a relationship grew between the King and his vassals or subjectsThe relationship between the lord and the vassal was sealed in the feudal contract in which both parties was expected to live up to their end to maintain peachUnder the king were the barons or greater nobles who became the vassals of their lord or the king
27The barons or greater nobles were considered the tenants-in-chief of the estates and established a land distribution hierarchy including other lesser nobles and commonersUnder the greater nobles were lesser nobles and under these lesser nobles the surf and freehold commonersAll nobles had land and were a lord of a manor that they profited fromThe serfs and freeholders were kept outside of the circle of power and had few rightsFreeholders paid a yearly amount to own their land while serfs essentially worked on the land of others
292. Medieval Life, Customs, Religion & Law: A. The Commoners:Commoners such as serfs and freeholders made up 90% of the population of a feudal manorVillage houses of commoners were very small, single-roomed and made of “wattle and daud” (sticks and clay)Commoner families were large and houses were overcrowded and often overrun by vermin and lousePlumbing, electricity, and proper furniture including mattresses to sleep on were non-existent
30Men, women, and children worked hard together Babies went to work with their mothers and children did not attend schoolAlong with tending to the fields, women were in charge of domestic duties such as cleaning, cooking, gathering firewood, and tending to home gardensMen did most of the physical labors such as ploughing, planting, weeding, and harvesting of crops- all by hand
32B. The Serfs:Serfs were considered part of the property of the estate and were not free to come and go as they pleasedSerfs had to donate 3-4 days of planting, weeding, and harvesting the lords property each weekSerfs could use a small strip of the land for their own food for sustenanceSerfs handed over a small percentage of their produce to the lord as well
36D. Lord & Lady:The Lord and Lady of the manor lived very, very well when compared to the commonersManor houses were large with many roomsRooms were elaborately decorated with furniture, tapestries, and paintingsLords and ladies had such privileges as house servants, many possessions, taking part in hunting, and entertainment by troubadoursLords also had certain obligations such as providing the tenants-in-chief with knights in the time or war and to marry and have children- a failure to keep up with these obligations could result in the manor being taken awayWomen had few rights and were subject to arranged marriages controlled by their fathersAfter marriage, husbands controlled their wives and only gained some freedom if windowed
38E. Belief & Devotion:Medieval people lived in a religious world of signs and symbolsAlmost all of Medieval Western Europe had embraced ChristianityPeople believed in an ongoing struggle between good and evil and that sinners would be judged after death and suffer in hell for an eternitySickness, death, good health, long lives, rain or drought were seen as direct consequences on one’s actionsSaints were recognized on the medieval calendar (St. Valentines and Dt. Patrick)The church played an important role and one could be excommunicated for not following church practices and principlesChurches were supported by a tax called the tithe representing about i/10 on one’s income in cash or crops
40F. Feudal Law:Many of our present legal traditions and practices have been handed down to us from the Middle AgesCourts, judges, trials by ordeal or battle, prosecution, and to use all were practiced in the Middle Ages
41Manor Courtsdealt with minor issues or disputes mainly involving farming or property issues, assaults, and public disobedience;Royal Courtsdealt with major issues like murder, rape, or treasonChurch Courtsdealt with issues involving church people such as bishops, deacons, priests, and, nuns and usually gave out more lenient sentences
433. The CrusadesThe Crusades were wars in which the Christians of Europe fought against the Muslims for control of the Holy Land- the area around modern-day Israel or the place believed to be the birthplace of Jesus Christ and the home of many sacred places and pilgrimage sitesThis area was once controlled by Christian Byzantine Empire but came under control of Seljuk Muslim Turks in the 11th century who believed it also to be sacred because Jerusalem was the place where Mohammad rose to heaven from
44There were 7 Crusades between 1096-1254 C. E There were 7 Crusades between C.E. – though the most noteworthy ones were in 1096, 1147, 1189Medieval knights fiercely fought with Muslim warriors to gain control of their Holy Land and secure their place in heavenThe First Crusade C.E. created a Christian kingdom that lasted 100 yearsThe Third Crusade in 1189 C.E. saw the Muslim leader Sultan Saladin recapture Jerusalem and essentially bring the Crusades to an eventual endThe Crusades did not bring the long-term military victories that the Pope and Christian kings envisionedEurope gained a new level of respect for the advanced and culturally rich civilization that existed in the Muslim worldThe cultural exchanges that took place between Christian and Muslim world would eventually lead to the Renaissance in Europe and sparked trade relationships and the European quest for silk, spices, incense, and fruit of the Middle East and Asia
46Important Dates 410 C.E.- The Goths sack Rome. C.E.- Clovis becomes ruler of the Franks.800 C.E.- Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne.855 C.E.- The Viking leader Ragnar attacks Paris.912 C.E.- The Viking Leader Rollo settles in Normandy.1066 C.E.- William of Normandy conquers England; the Battle of Hastings begins.1070 C.E.- End of the Viking Age.1085 C.E.- The Domesday Book is made.1096 C.E.- The first Crusade begins.1147 C.E.- The Second Crusade begins.1169 C.E.- Saladin becomes Sultan.1170 C.E.- Murder of Thomas Becket.1189 C.E.- The Third Crusade begins.1215 C.E.- King John signs the Magna Carta.1227 C.E.- Death of Ghengis Khan
47Key Terms -Germanic Peopl Charlemagne Pope Monarch Barbarians MerovinigansCeltic PeopleNoblesAnglo-SaxonPilgrimWardLordVikingsApostlesFranksCommoners
48Key Terms Qur’an Whigs Baron Troubadour Vassal King Great Noble Lesser NobleKnightSerf