How would you describe the standard, stereotypical American view of the “Old West?”Old West 1. SHOULDER BUDDIES!!
POST-CIVIL WAR: REINTRODUCTION OF SOUTHERN STATES INTO UNION CAUSES MASSIVE DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT (PEOPLE MOVE) BLACKS (“EXODUSTERS”) MOVE NORTH TO URBAN AREAS, WEST TO NEW LANDS HOMESTEAD ACT, 1862: LAND AVAILABLE FOR LITTLE $, 5-YR. TERM MORRILL ACT, 1862: GOVT. GIVES OUT FEDERAL LAND TO CREATE SYSTEM OF “LAND-GRANT COLLEGES” Nicodemus, Kansas, founded by Southern blacks (“Exodusters”) in 1860’s
Which of the two federal laws, passed in 1862, had a greater impact on the western United States and American society as a whole? In what way? 2. SHOULDER BUDDIES!! MORRILL ACT, 1862 (Iowa State, the first land-grant college—go Cyclones!) HOMESTEAD ACT, 1862 (a settler’s sod house)
LEADING THE WAY-- RAILROADS 1862: PROJECT BEGINS TO BUILD 1ST TRANS-CONTINENTAL RAILROAD GOV’T. CONTRACT AWARDED TO UNION PACIFIC (BUILDING FROM NEBRASKA WEST) CENTRAL PACIFIC (BUILDING FROM CALIFORNIA EAST) WHO BUILT IT? –EX-SLAVES, WAR VETS, IMMIGRANTS (PRIMARILY IRISH, CHINESE)
THRILL to the exciting “Double Bucket of Rocks” Race!! Bring your friends on the Backbreaking Railcart of Agony!! Want to get through a mountain? Try our new “Explosive Basket!” Surrender all hope of finishing this project at any point in your lifetime! Do you love really flimsy- looking bridges? Make new friends! Enjoy bracing weather!
MAY 10, 1869, PROMONTORY POINT, UTAH TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD FINISHED
What made the transcontinental railroad such an important achievement? List all the effects you can think of… 3. SHOULDER BUDDIES!!
SUTTER’S MILL, CALIF., JAN.1848 “GOLD FEVER,” 1849-1870 RUMORS FUEL MASSIVE RUSH WEST CAUSES IMMEDIATE PROSPERITY FOR WEST COAST, GROWTH OF BOOM TOWNS NEAR GOLD STRIKES RAILROADS CREATE OPPORTUNITIES!!
Panning for Gold…the Hard Way… “Cradling” for Gold…the OTHER hard way…
CATTLE INDUSTRY, 1860-1880 DEPOPULATION OF BUFFALO=OPEN PLAINS FOR GRAZING GROWTH OF EASTERN CITIES = DEMAND FOR BEEF CATTLE $3-5/HEAD IN TEXAS; $30-50 IN ST. LOUIS TRAILS GROW FROM TEXAS TO COW TOWNS CATTLE SHIPPED BY RAIL TO EASTERN CITIES GROWTH OF CATTLE INDUSTRY LEADS TO DEVELOPMENT OF COWBOYS (BASED ON MEXICAN VAQUEROS) Pile of buffalo skulls, California 1870
Examine the map of frontier settlements below. Where was the greatest area of growth by 1870? What about between 1870 and 1880? Between 1880 and 1890? What factors drove population growth between those three periods? 4. SHOULDER BUDDIES!! Frontier Settlements, 1870-1890
To the right is a patent application from 1874. Joseph Glidden of DeKalb, Illinois, developed a machine that could create twisted wire with sharp ends (“barbs”) that could easily be strung as fences. Many historians assert that Joseph Glidden “settled the West.” Describe the impact of barbed wire on the following groups: Farmers Cattle Ranchers Native Americans 5. SHOULDER BUDDIES!!
MYTH #1: “THE FRONTIER WAS WHITE.” GREAT ETHNIC DIVERSITY ON FRONTIER (1/2 OF POPULATION WAS BLACK OR HISPANIC) Nat Love : ex - slave, cowboy, Indian fighter “ Buffalo Soldiers,” U. S. ArmyMexican “ vaqueros ”
The “Chinese Question” Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Banned Chinese immigration for 10 years, created permanent alien status for Chinese already in U.S. (so no citizenship) The “Chinese Question” Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Banned Chinese immigration for 10 years, created permanent alien status for Chinese already in U.S. (so no citizenship) “No More Dumping Allowed”
To the right is a chart detailing the populations of African-Americans and Chinese from 1880 to 1900. Examine this chart and answer the following: Where was the area of greatest growth for African-Americans? Where was the area of greatest growth for Chinese? Where was the area of greatest decrease for Chinese? 6. SHOULDER BUDDIES!!
MYTH #2: “THE FRONTIER WAS A VIOLENT, DANGEROUS PLACE.” COMPARATIVELY LITTLE VIOLENCE/MURDER LURID IMAGES POPULARIZED BY DIME NOVELS WILLIAM H. BONNEY (“BILLY THE KID”) THE WILD BUNCH, 1900 HARRY LONGBAUGH, A.K.A. “THE SUNDANCE KID” ROBERT PARKER, A.K.A. BUTCH CASSIDY JESSE AND FRANK JAMES
Read the excerpt from the dime novel The Jesse James Stories and the interpretation by Richard Slotkin. Then answer the following: Based on the excerpt from the dime novel, what kind of person is Jesse James? Jesse James is supposed to be a hero, but he is also a killer and an outlaw. Slotkin explains that in the dime novel, it was okay to be an outlaw. What is Slotkin’s argument? Why would readers in the late 19th century celebrate an outlaw? Why does Slotkin suggest that working class men (from the cities) might have enjoyed reading dime novels? 7. SHOULDER BUDDIES!!