Presentation on theme: "Using these two paintings, comment on the similarities and differences between Italian and Northern humanism. Grunewald’s The Crucifixion Francesca’s Flagellation."— Presentation transcript:
Using these two paintings, comment on the similarities and differences between Italian and Northern humanism. Grunewald’s The Crucifixion Francesca’s Flagellation (of Christ)
The Protestant Reformation Ch14 Pope Julius II – warrior-pope – Holy League Luther posts 95 Theses Act of Supremacy – Church of England
Early Reformation Frederick II and Ferdinand/Isabella, Babylonian Captivity, Great Schism, Church patronage and political power Priests neglected rule of celibacy, drank, gambled, barely literate, and terrible in Mass Higher clergy had too many positions – did not have a home church States wanted to treat the clergy like the rest of the people – taxes and civic responsibilities Evangelical or Magisterial Branches
Martin Luther Planned to be a lawyer Theology teacher at University of Wittenberg “The just shall live by faith.” Romans (1:17) – Salvation by faith 95 Theses – abuses of the church - indulgences Diet of Worms – Luther is declared an outlaw and excommunicated from the church
Lutheranism 1.“ Sola Fide” - Salvation by faith 2.“Sola scriptura” – truth lies in the Bible 3.“Sola gratia” – free gift of God’s grace - sacraments 4.German Kings created their own church 5.Services, not mass – reading the Bible, preaching and hymns – everyone equal – baptism and Eucharist 6.German translation of Bible - Guttenberg 7.Abolished monasteries and celibacy of clergy – Luther would marry a former nun
Lutheranism Peasants’ Revolt – crop failures – Luther did not support the peasants Holy Roman Emperor Charles V - Catholic Diet of Augsburg – 1530 War in Peace of Augsburg – German prince right to determine religion of his state Lutheran or Roman Catholic No recognition of Calvinists or Anabaptists – Lutheranism dominant in northern Germany and Scandinavia
Calvinism - Swiss Ch14-4 Ulrich Zwingli – Humanist and Catholic priest – Sacraments only symbolic ceremonies (Eucharist) – Rejected celibacy of clergy – Emphasized simplicity in worship – Killed by Catholic forces John Calvin – French Protestant – Exile in Geneva – Doctors, pastors, deacons, and elders – Institutes of the Christian Religion – Predestination Salvation by election – Puritanism Theocracy
Spread of Calvinism Switzerland France – Huguenots John Knox – Presbyterians England – Puritans Netherlands Max Weber’s theory of the “Protestant work ethic”
Anabaptism Radicals of the PR Rejection of infant baptism Active in Peasants’ Revolt Woman’s rights Menno Simons – Mennonites
Jan Leiden of Munster Cult Polygamy, burned all books (not Bible), end of the world Catholics and Lutherans hated him - executed
Students will write a thesis paragraph in response to this prompt: “Comparing Luther to other Protestant reform movements, explain whether he was a conservative or a radical. Justify your conclusion.”
Henry VIII He was big and handsome and wore fine clothes He loved games, horse-riding and hunting He spoke four languages, wrote poetry and played music
But most important to him… He wanted to be a strong king, with a firm hold on the throne He most wanted a son to succeed him
Catherine of Aragon, Spain She was married to Arthur Married 1509 – 5 yrs. older She had a daughter, Mary, but no sons She was too old for more children – many miscarriages In 1533, Henry divorced her - Dies in 1536 – age 51
Church of England During this time, Henry was trying desperately to change England’s religious stance. England was affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. After Henry tried to divorce Catherine of Aragon and the church said no, he decided to form his own church – the Church of England. This is where we get protestant churches of today.
Anne Boleyn Married 1533 She was young, pretty and witty She had one daughter, Elizabeth Has a miscarriage the day of Catherine’s funeral - son She was beheaded for being unfaithful in 1536
Jane Seymour Married 1536 (11 days after execution of Anne) She had a son, Edward. She died during childbirth Edward replaced his dad, but died soon after. Henry probably loved her best of all his wives
Anne of Cleves Married 1540 The marriage made a link between England and Germany Henry thought she was ugly Divorced 1540 – the same year!
Catherine Howard Married 1540 She was 20, Henry was 49 She was unfaithful Executed in 1542
Catherine Parr Married 1543 – her 4 th husband – She was dating Jane Seymour’s brother She liked family life and looked after Henry’s children She outlived Henry – Married Thomas Seymour
Edward VI 1547 Henry VIII dies Succeeded by Edward VI (only 10) Turmoil swept England. – Scotland invaded – peasant violence. Edward dominated by devout Protestants who pushed for Calvinist reforms. Dies from TB
Mary Tudor Mary Tudor inherits the throne when Edward dies in his teens Determined to make England Catholic again. Parliament would not support the return of church lands to the church. Called “Bloody Mary”. Why? What did she do to her half-sister, Elizabeth?
Mary and Philip II Mary(37) married Phillip II of Spain(27), son of Charles V and future king of Spain. This caused an uprising in England. Why? Led plot to depose her. Opposition to Mary made England more Protestant than it had been before her reign Queen Elizabeth takes the throne when Mary dies. She dies at age 42.
The England of Elizabeth Elizabeth I took the throne of England in 1558 and ruled for 45 years. Considered one of the best British Monarchs. Under her reign England went from a relatively poor, second-tier country to the leader of Protestant Europe Powerful naval power poised to create a vast empire. Drake
Religious Reforms Elizabeth’s first problem was to heal the religious wounds in her country. What is Elizabeth’s approach? – Repeals the anti-Protestant laws of Mary – Passed a new Act of Supremacy making the monarch the only supreme governor of both the Church and State. – Modified the church service to meet some of the objections of Catholics—made less “Protestant”
Spanish Netherlands Spanish Netherlands were very important to Spain. Why? Industry Phillip’s attempt to strengthen Spain’s control over the area led to revolt. Why? Protestants Violence erupts in 1566 when Calvinists destroy Catholic Churches. Phillip sends in 10,000 troops English Aid to Netherlands – War? Spanish Armada
Elizabeth Tweaks France and Spain Elizabeth provided clandestine help to both the Dutch Calvinists and French Huguenots. Commissioned privateers to raid Spanish treasure ships returning from the New World. Francis Drake Golden Hinde
Conflict with Spain Phillip II ultimately decided to invade England Reasons: – Believed that revolt in Netherlands would never be put down while England was aiding them. – Irritated by privateering/pirating – Wanted to claim England back for the Pope. – Believed that if Spanish troops appeared in England the people would rise up in support of Catholic liberators. – Revenge on Elizabeth.
Spanish Armada Phillip’s Plan – Create a powerful armada of 150 ships to destroy and dominate England in the North Atlantic – Invade with troops from Netherlands. On paper, England appears to be in serious trouble. What advantage does the English have? What is the key to Spanish naval strategy? How does the weather aid England?
Elizabeth and Foreign Policy Government in debt – too many parties and gowns - raise taxes or sell land? Conflict between nobles and gentry – power struggle Elizabeth was pressed by her advisors to make a political marriage. She did not want to share power with a foreigner or Englishman. Why? Using this and other diplomatic maneuvers, she kept England neutral and unencumbered by alliances that would force England into war. “Virgin Queen” – She dies with no heir to the throne – The Stuart Dynasty starts
James I ( ) First of the Stuart Dynasty – Scot – Mary’s son He derives his power from God Spends too much money – Parliament Puritans – They want to purify the church of all Catholic rituals and symbols – Opponents of James I Died of stroke – age 59
Bourbon France Hapsburg-Valois Wars – Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis – Spain Won St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 8/24/1572 – Queen Catherine attacks the Huguenots (French Protestants) Civil Wars delayed France’s development as an international and colonial power Wars lasted for 30 years.
House of Bourbon Bourbons(Huguenot) become the ruling family. Henry IV ( ) – Had no choice but to convert to Catholic Edict of Nantes (1598)— – Catholicism is the official religion of France – Huguenots guaranteed freedom of worship and right to all political privileges. – Huguenots have the right to fortify their castles and towns.
Agencies of Catholic Reform The chief agencies in carrying out this work were: – The papacy – A group of religious orders, especially the Society of Jesus or Jesuits – The Council of Trent – The Inquisition – The Index of Prohibited Books
The Society of Jesus The Jesuits were the creation of St. Ignatius Loyola. He was a Spanish soldier, injured in battle, who experienced a conversion during his convalescence.
St. Ignatius Loyola As a consequence, he felt a new desire to devote his life to the service of God and carried his military ideals with him. Henceforth, he would be a Soldier of Christ.
Purposes of the Order The original purpose of the Jesuits was to reach and convert the masses of people who had strayed from the church. Thus preaching was their fundamental task. They also stressed the instruction of children in Christian doctrine and urged more frequent confession and communion.
Council of Trent ( ) Salvation could be achieved by faith and works Only the Church could translate and interpret the Bible. Selling indulgences were forbidden Creation of seminaries – training schools – better education and training of priests Reaffirm celibacy, good works, authority of the papacy, and transubstantiation(bread and wine)
Persecution and Repression The states of Europe were asked to facilitate the work of the Inquisition. – In France, the request was denied. – In Spain, however, the activities of the Inquisition, long vigorous, were stimulated even further. – Roman inquisition – Galileo incident
Witchcraft Craze 1480s-1660s – most common in 1560s Economic and Social upheaval results in social tensions that manifest themselves in witchcraft craze. Causes? As many as 100, ,000 trials Who was most frequently accused? Why?
The Index The Roman Index of Prohibited Books, another means of suppressing heretical doctrines. – It included a wide variety of books, including not only heretical ones but also obscene books and books on witchcraft. – In addition, the pope appointed a Congregation of the Index, to keep the Index up to date and to publish revised editions periodically. – Lasted to 1966
Results The church did correct many of their abuses. i.e. indulgences Europe was religiously divided. The Protestants controlled the North and the Catholics controlled the South. Religious persecution – Jews, lesser Protestant groups Protestant work ethic/Capitalism Future War