Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit 5: The Constitution (1777 – 1791) TSSBAT: Describe the form of government under the Articles of Confederation Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: The Constitution (1777 – 1791) TSSBAT: Describe the form of government under the Articles of Confederation Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5: The Constitution (1777 – 1791) TSSBAT: Describe the form of government under the Articles of Confederation Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Describe how the constitution limits power

2 Inventions of the 1700’s 1701 Jethro Tull invents the seed drill.Jethro Tull 1709 Bartolomeo Cristofori invents the piano.piano 1711 Englishmen, John Shore invents the tuning fork Thomas Newcomen patents the atmospheric steam engine.Thomas Newcomen 1717 Edmond Halley invents the diving bell French C. Hopffer patents the fire extinguisher Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the first mercury thermometer.thermometer 1733 John Kay invents the flying shuttle.flying shuttle 1745 E.G. von Kleist invents the leyden jar, the first electrical capacitor Benjamin Franklin invents the lightening rod.lightening rod 1755 Samuel Johnson publishes the first English language dictionary on April 15th after nine years of writing. In the preface Samuel Johnson wrote, "I am not so lost in lexicography as to forget that words are the daughters of earth, and that things are the sons of heaven." 1757 John Campbell invents the sextant.sextant

3 More Inventions 1758 Dolland invents a chromatic lens Englishmen, John Harrison invents the navigational clock or marine chronometer for measuring longitude.marine chronometer 1764 James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny.spinning jenny 1767 Joseph Priestley invents carbonated water - soda water.Joseph Priestley 1768 Richard Arkwright patents the spinning frame.spinning frame 1769 James Watt invents an improved steam engine.James Watt 1774 Georges Louis Lesage patents the electric telegraph Alexander Cummings invents the flush toilet.flush toilet Jacques Perrier invents a steamship David Bushnell invents a submarine.David Bushnell 1779 Samuel Crompton invents the spinning mule.spinning mule 1780 Benjamin Franklin invents bi-focal eyeglasses.bi-focal eyeglasses Gervinus invents the circular saw Louis Sebastien demonstrates the first parachute.Louis Sebastien Benjamin Hanks patents the self-winding clock. The Montgolfier brothers invent the hot-air balloon.Montgolfier brothers Englishmen, Henry Cort invents the steel roller for steel production.

4 1784 Andrew Meikle invents the threshing machine Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom.power loom Claude Berthollet invents chemical bleaching. Charles Augustus Coulomb invents the torsion balance. Jean Pierre Blanchard invents a working parachute. Jean Pierre Blanchard 1786 John Fitch invents a steamboat.John Fitch 1789 The guillotine is invented.guillotine 1790 The United States issued its first patent to William Pollard of Philadelphia for a machine that roves and spins cotton John Barber invents the gas turbine. Early bicycles invented in Scotland William Murdoch invents gas lighting., also the first ambulance (Inventor unknown).gas lightingambulance 1794 Eli Whitney patents the cotton gin.Eli Whitney Welshmen, Philip Vaughan invents ball bearings Francois Appert invents the preserving jar for food Edward Jenner creates a smallpox vaccination.vaccination 1797 Wittemore patents a carding machine. A British inventor, Henry Maudslay invents the first metal or precision lathe The first soft drink invented. Aloys Senefelder invents lithography Alessandro Volta invents the battery.Alessandro Volta Louis Robert invents the Fourdrinier Machine for sheet paper making.

5

6 Great Political Thinkers Thomas Hobbes John Locke Baron de Montesquieu Jean Jacque Rousseau Thomas Paine **All searched for ways to have uncorrupted ruling class.

7 Voting Theories Plurality Voting – For example, with 5 candidates running, 33% can win. Preference schedule – You would rank 1 to 5 for your choices. Developed by Jean Borda – Winner can’t necessarily beat each candidate one on one – This was easy to manipulate “My scheme was intended for honest men” – Borda Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem – No election with more than 2 candidates can be perfectly fair.

8 The Articles of Confederation States retained sovereignty over all matters. Accomplishments of the Confederation Congress: They won their independence under the government, expanded trade with other nations Resolved land disputes over western territories.

9 Strict Rules for Passing Laws 1. It could not pass a law unless 9 of 13 states agreed. 2. It could not change the Articles without the consent of ALL 13 states. **States each made their own constitutions upon entering the union. They wanted to limit their governors power.

10 Weaknesses of Articles No executive No judicial branch, so no separation of powers No tax base, no way to pay off war debt No national currency No national military Unicameral legislature Needed unanimous approval to change Articles.

11 Shays’ Rebellion Uprising of farmers upset over border skirmishes with natives Articles provided no central power to deal with such a rebellion Over 1000 arrested, 4 killed.

12 Notes: The Articles of Confederation Financial Problems Both the Confederation and many states were in debt. Many citizens could not pay their state taxes. Both the Confederation and State currencies were worthless. They had greatly depreciated. Many investors were losing money investing in the currency. Problems with Great Britain Great Britain took advantage of the weak American government, they refused to remove their troops after the war, leaving them in the Great Lakes and the western lands.

13 Ordinance of 1785 US couldn’t tax under articles, so they needed to raise money by selling land.

14 Northwest Ordinance 1787, creates Northwest Territory Creates precedent that US will expand by admission of new states, not growing existing states. Slavery banned on North side of the Ohio River

15 Constitutional Convention After the Annapolis Convention, the states, with the exception of Rhode Island, elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention, which finally began deliberations on May 25, 1787.Rhode Island The Convention lasted until September 17, 1787.

16 Notes: The Constitutional Convention #7 Virginia Plan A proposal to change the Articles of Confederation government. This plan favored states with large populations. It called for the following: 1. A Chief Executive 2. Court System 3. Number of people in congress determined by population – Proportional Representation (larger states get to send more representatives) New Jersey Plan A proposal favoring smaller state populations. Called for the following change to the Virginia Plan: equal representation— Each state sends one person regardless of how many people live there.

17 Notes: The Constitutional Convention #7 d/?a=79143&s=00:19:27:07 &e=00:20:45:04 Great Compromise A compromise between large and small populated states (VA & NJ Plans): a two house legislature— one house equal representation, other house proportional

18 Great Compromise

19 Just like all other conflicts, they settle with compromise Great Compromise A compromise between large and small populated states (VA & NJ Plans): a two house legislature— one house equal representation, other house proportional 3/5 Compromise A compromise to get the southern states to agree to the Great Compromise. The southern states would not agree to the plan unless they could count their slaves under their population. The northern states objected counting slaves. A compromise was made to count each slave as 3/5 th a person for proportional representation. Also, to build a U.S. capital in the southern state of Virginia.

20 Notes: The Constitutional Convention #7 Approving the Constitution

21 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #8 The Preamble 1.In Order to Form a More Perfect Union Articles of Confederation were flawed and needed to be changed. The Constitution is not perfect—it can be changed! 2.Establish Justice Articles of Confederation did not have a Federal court system. We need courts to protect individuals and states. 3.Insure Domestic Tranquility The Federal government needs to help protect us from being harmed by other citizens or even the state in which we live. 4.Provide for the Common Defense The Federal government must have a strong armed forces to protect us from other countries. 5.Promote the General Welfare The federal government needs to help people pursue life, liberty, and happiness. 6.Secure the Blessings of Liberty The federal government needs to protect peoples individual freedoms.

22 Constitution This is a framework or skeleton that sets rules for government For example, we elect a President every 4 years because the constitution tell us to do so.

23 Preview: The U.S. Constitution #10 What is the Main Idea of the of each video? 1. The Preamble 2. Three Ring Government

24 James Madison Father of the Constitution

25 Anti-Federalists vs. Federalists Federalists: Supported the new constitution. Anti-Federalists The Anti-Federalists did not want to ratify the Constitution.

26

27 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #8

28 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10 Benefit of a Bicameral Legislature A law is written in one legislative body and must be approved by the other legislative body.

29 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10

30 Presidents Cabinet Vice President Secretary of State Secretary of Treasury Secretary of Defense Attorney General Secretary of the Interior Secretary of Agriculture Secretary of Commerce Secretary of Labor Health and Human Services Housing and Urban Development Transportation Energy Education Veterans Affairs Homeland Security nistration/cabinet

31

32 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10

33 They are appointed by the President, confirmed by the Senate, and then serve for life. There are no requirements of age, experience to serve on the bench.

34 There are both state and federal courts. Federal courts have district trial court, then an appeals court, then the Supreme court.

35 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10 There are both federal and state courts. Federal courts have district trial court, then an appeals court, then the Supreme court. Judicial Review The primary role of the Supreme Court is to determine if laws and acts of the government and citizens are constitutional. Public Policy Sometimes their decisions force government to act in a particular way, just as if they were writing a law. One such decision was the desegregation of schools after Brown v. Board. After that decision the states were forced to make sure all schools were integrated.

36 Supreme Court Precedents Terry V Ohio – Police can seize without arrest MN V Dickerson – Need probable cause to arrest TN V Garner – Police may use deadly force if their lives are threatened. Kyllo V US – Surveillance must be used from where police have the right to be. Ie. Thermal Imaging.

37 Supreme Court Continued Powell V Alabama – Man put to death without lawyer. Gideon V Wainwright – You get lawyer for all state crimes (more than 1 year sentence)

38 Evidentiary Continuum

39 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10 The Bill of Rights are the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution. They protect individual and states rights. Bill of Rights (individual liberties) 1st Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and press, and the right of people to petition the government. 2nd Protects the rights of states to maintain a militia and of citizens to bear arms. 3rdRestricts quartering of troops in private homes. 4th Protects against “unreasonable searches and seizures”. (Right to Privacy) 5thAssures the right not to be deprived of “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”. Includes the right to remain silent. 6thGuarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, and the right to confront witnesses and to have an attorney. 7thAssures the right to a jury trial. 8thProtects against excessive bail, or cruel and unusual punishment.

40 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10 Bill of Rights 1 st Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and press, and the right of people to petition the government. 2 nd Protects the rights of states to maintain a militia and of citizens to bear arms. 3 rd Restricts quartering of troops in private homes. 4 th Protects against “unreasonable searches and seizures” (Right to Privacy) 5 th Assures the right not to be deprived of “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”. Includes the right to remain silent. 6 th Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, and the right to confront witnesses and to have an attorney. 7 th Assures the right to a jury trial. 8 th Protects against excessive bail, or cruel and unusual punishment.

41 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10 Other Amendment Rights 13 th Outlaw of Slavery 14 th Equal Protection for every citizen under the law 15 th Right to vote based on Race 17 th Right to elect your own Senator 19 th Right to vote based on Gender 21 st Ending Prohibition 26 th Right to vote at 18 (during Vietnam War) `

42 Notes: The U.S. Constitution #10 Other Amendment Rights 13 th Outlaw of Slavery 14 th Equal Protection for every citizen under the law 15 th Right to vote based on Race 17 th Right to elect your own Senator 19 th Right to vote based on Gender 21 st Ending Prohibition 26 th Right to vote at 18 (during Vietnam War) `

43 Conclusion: The U.S. Constitution #10 Legislative Branch Checks power of Executive Branch by ………….. Checks power of Judicial Branch by ………….. The Executive Branch Checks power of Legislative Branch by ………….. Checks power of Judicial Branch by ………….. The Judicial Branch Checks power of Legislative Branch by ………….. Checks power of Executive Branch by ………….. page 224

44 Notes: DBQ Quiz #9

45 8 TH 2 ND 1 ST 4 TH 1 ST 6 TH 5 TH 6 TH 7 TH 1 ST

46 Constitution Tree p p p. 210

47 Notes: The National Debate#4 Accomplishments of Washington’s presidency. Setting Precedent Building of a Cabinet Paying off the Revolutionary War Debt Capital City Creating a National Bank Developing National Taxes & Tariffs Stopping Rebellion

48 How the Constitution Limits Power of the Government Forbids bills of attainder Protects against ex post facto laws Can’t tax exports Various Checks and balances

49 English Bill of Rights 1689, Inspired the US to have a listing of our rights King can’t tax, interfere with elections, have army in peacetime Freedom of speech, guns, and petition

50 Magna Carta 1215 First limit on King’s power Created a parliament as a law making body. Parliament controls the $$$

51 Adam Smith Wrote Wealth of Nations. Outlined Capitalist philosophy

52 William Blackstone Wrote Treatise of Common Law Blackstone's ratio popularly stated as "Better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer"

53 John Locke Influenced Voltaire and Rousseau Social Contract Theory Locke’s Theory of Mind – Origin of modern conception of self Born without innate ideas / conceptions.

54 Baron de Montesquieu Theory of Separation of Powers

55 Thomas Paine Wrote Common Sense Questioned Divine Right of Kings Very influential during Revolutionary War.

56 Thomas Hobbes 1651 book Leviathan gave insight into social contract theory Also contributed to geometry and the sciences.

57 Jean Jacque Rousseau Wrote book, Emile, or on education Paved the way to the Age of Sensibility with his writing “Confessions”. Influential in both American and French Revolutions.


Download ppt "Unit 5: The Constitution (1777 – 1791) TSSBAT: Describe the form of government under the Articles of Confederation Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google