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Hazards 9.6

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**Figure 9.61 Definition of hazards**

1 1 (a) Static hazard 1 1 1 (b) Dynamic hazard Figure Definition of hazards

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**Figure 9.62 An example of a static hazard**

3 (a) Circuit with a hazard 1 2 p q x 1 2 3 00 01 11 10 (b) Karnaugh map x 3 1 2 f (c) Hazard-free circuit Figure An example of a static hazard

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**Figure 9.63 Two-level implementation of master-slave D flip-flop**

C Y m s y p q r (a) Minimum-cost circuit Q D C Y m s y (c) Hazard-free circuit Q 00 01 11 10 1 (b) Karnaugh maps for Y m and s in Figure 9.6 a y CD Figure Two-level implementation of master-slave D flip-flop

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**Figure 9.64 Function for Example 9.17**

2 3 4 00 01 11 10 d Figure Function for Example 9.17 para resolver o hazard, não há necessidade de cobrir os “don´t care”, apenas os “1s” adjacentes

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**Figure 9.65 Static hazard in a POS circuit**

x 3 (a) Circuit with a hazard 2 1 p q x 1 2 3 00 01 11 10 (b) Karnaugh map x 3 2 1 f (c) Hazard-free circuit Figure Static hazard in a POS circuit

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**Figure 9.66 Circuit with a dynamic hazard**

x 2 3 4 , 1 b a c d f One gate delay (b) Timing diagram (a) Circuit x 2 1 3 4 b a c d f Figure Circuit with a dynamic hazard

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