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CHINA Public Policy. “Fang-shou” Economic reform Democractic movements Tightening – up by CCP.

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Presentation on theme: "CHINA Public Policy. “Fang-shou” Economic reform Democractic movements Tightening – up by CCP."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHINA Public Policy

2 “Fang-shou” Economic reform Democractic movements Tightening – up by CCP

3 How Fang-shou works Four modernizations Democracy Wall movement De-legalization of protest 2nd Revolution Student democracy protest Anti-bourgeois Liberalization Tiananmen Democracy Demonstration Tiananmen “massacre” Falon Gong demonstrations Outlaw of Falon Gong

4 Types of policy issues DEMOCRACY & HUMAN RIGHTS ECONOMY FOREIGN POLICY & INTERNATIONAL TRADE

5 DEMOCRACY & HUMAN RIGHTS

6 Democracy and Human Rights Following in Deng’s footsteps – Jiang Zemin, president – Hu Jintao, pres. since 2003 Recent reforms – Some input from NPC – More emphasis on law and legal procedures – Semi-competitive village elections

7 Tiananmen Crisis Demonstration in honor of death of Hu Yaobang, liberal Turned into general protest all over China – Anti-corruption, pro-reform Deng sent PLA, who shot into crowd Fatalities – 700 to several thousand? RESULTING PRESSURE WORLWIDE – HUMAN RIGHTS

8 Rule of Law Law traditionally seen as bourgeoisie tool for suppression – NOT LEGITIMATE Instead, RULE of PARTY CCP Development of criminal law since 1978 – Very harsh punishments 1982 Constitution – Authority of law

9 Civil Rights & Liberties Much debated Hu Yaobang reversed SARS coverup – more transparency Still arrests of dissidents, strong internet regulations

10 ECONOMIC POLICY

11 From Mao to Deng Under Mao – Command economy based on DEMOCRATIC CENTRALISM – The “iron rice bowl” – failed Since Deng – Socialist market economy – Infusion of capitalism with state control

12 Agricultural Policy People’s communes – Early policy – Collective farms people’s communes (thousands of families) – Little improvement Household responsibility system – Replacement – Individual families responsible – After taxes and fees, can consume or sell

13 Private Business As of 1988 Includes urban co-ops, service orgs, rural industries – Still regulated – More profitable than state enterprises TVEs – Township & village enterprises – Rural factories, businesses, run by local gov’ts or individuals – Backbone of rural development

14 Economic issues today Unemployment, inequality – Floating population of rural workers to cities Inefficiency of state enterprises, corruption Pollution – Acid rain, largest producer of “greenhouse gasses” Product safety – Toxic materials in toys, bogus pet food, faulty tires, unhealthy shellfish

15 FOREIGN POLICY & TRADE

16 Under Mao Providing support for third-world communist revolutions – Development aid (Korea, Vietnam) Change in relations with USSR – From assistance to rivalry – Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution focused on the “Chinese way”

17 U.S./Chinese relations Under Mao, very weak and suspicious 1972 Nixon’s visit Deng’s Open Door Policy Today, U.S. imports more products than it exports ….. TRADE IMBALANCE – U.S. wants China to devalue its currency and stop illegal trade

18 International Trade & Business SEZs – Special Economic Zones – Foreign investors given special tax rates in certain regions of China (urban) Member of WTO, favored U.S. trade partner, in control of Hong Kong since 1997 Reform under Deng – Still cautious (fang-shou) – Patron-client system (guanxi) with entrepreneurs

19 Hong Kong “one country, two systems” – Since 1997, handed over from British – Capitalist, existing laws & civil liberties and way of life 2003 incident – Tung Chee-hwa sells gov’t-owned public housing without permission – Results in demonstrations for more representation, elected governor

20 Taiwan Chang Kai-shek’s refuge in communist revolution 1949 – Until 1970s, recognized as representative for China – 1979, PRC officially recognized Taiwan as part of China – Insists historical and political sovereignty over Taiwan – Largest trade partner is still China

21 Current Policy Issues One China Policy – Taiwan/independence, US arms sales One Child Policy – Until 2015, females neglected, aborted Energy conservation – 5 Yr. Plan, more investment, rejection by local gov’ts? Nuclear energy? Alternative energy Lowering economic growth goals – Raise incomes, private businesses, decrease inflation Internet policy – 220 mil. bloggers


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