Lecture 1 The Legacy of 1848 / Is Germany Unique?
From the Meuse? From the Meuse to the Memel / From the Adige to the Belt
Pre-1848 Social Groupings Aristocracy: high nobility (Hochadel), aristocracy of the courts (Hof- and Dienstadel) — core of the counterrevolution, minor aristocracy (Kleinadel), and aristocracy of the towns. Middle classes: the commercial middle class (bourgeoisie), civil servants and educated middle class, freelance intelligentsia, and the lower middle class (Kleinb ü rgertum or petit bourgeoisie). Peasantry: highly stratified depending upon region and regional history. Growing underclass.
Political Oppression Press Censorship Outlaw of any political associations Radicalization of political groups
Internal Pressures Hungry 40s Demographic Changes Rise in prices of basic goods Food riots Dissatisfaction with Political System
Int’l Developments Succession in Schleswig-Holstein Swiss Reforms Italian nationalism against the Austro- Hungarian Empire
End of the July Monarchy Paris Barricades of February 1848 H. Vernet, Barricade in the Rue Soufflot, Paris1848
Republican Uprising in Baden, 1848 http://www.bild.bundesarchiv.de/cross-search/search/_1255276722/?search[page]=6
On the barricades, 1848 http://www.bundestag.de/blickpunkt/105_Unter_der_Kuppel/0409014.html
March Demands A people ’ s army with freely elected officers Freedom of the press Trial by jury Creation of a German parliament
Bundestag Decrees Press Freedom Revision of the Federal Constitution Recognition of the colors red, black, and gold as federal colors Creation of the Committee of Seventeen to oversee the creation of a constitution
Rough Breakdown of Political Associations Workers’ Associations Democrats Constitutionalists Catholics Conservatives
Counterrevolution European context-late spring/summer/fall 1848 Poland Prague Paris Northern Italy Frankfurt / Baden
Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Friedrich_christoph_dahlmann.jpg “Injustice has lost all sense of shame.”