Presentation on theme: "The German monk Martin Luther challenged the Pope on the issue of indulgences and other practices that he considered corrupt or not Christian Luther started."— Presentation transcript:
The German monk Martin Luther challenged the Pope on the issue of indulgences and other practices that he considered corrupt or not Christian Luther started the Protestant Reformation He said salvation could be by faith alone, that Christian belief could be based only on the Bible and on Christian tradition. Luther at age 46, (1529)
John Tetzel (1465- August 11, 1519) was a German Dominican friar and inquisitor who is perhaps best known for selling indulgences during the 16th century
An indulgence granted by authority of the Pope by Johann Tetzel in The text reads: "By the authority of all the saints, and in mercy towards you, I absolve you from all sins and misdeeds and remit all punishments for ten days."
Don't you hear the voices of your wailing dead parents and others who say, 'Have mercy upon me, have mercy upon me, because we are in severe punishment and pain. From this you could redeem us with a small alms and yet you do not want to do so. (sermon) "As soon a coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs." Even went as far as creating a chart that listed a price for each type of sin.
Viewing relics and making donations would not shorten one’s time in purgatory - By 1509 Frederick, the Holy Roman Emperor, had over 5,000 relics, purportedly "including vials of the milk of the Virgin Mary, straw from the manger [of Jesus], and the body of one of the innocents massacred by King Herod.“ Shown are purportedly the chains that held St. Peter in prison in Rome prior to his upside down crucifixion
A Piece of the True Cross
More True Cross examples – John Calvin around 1550 said there was enough True Cross pieces to fill a ship! (the 1 st historical reference to finding the cross was around 370ce)
Christians don’t have this market cornered – here is purportedly the footprint of Muhammad impressed by miracle into stone!
The head of John the Baptist, taken from him by King Herod
St Francis upper arm bone (humerus)
St Valentine’s skull
Skull of St. Ives in Brittany, France
Mary Magdalene’s Tibia
St. Stephen’s Hand
Santo Nino – a 1 foot high statue given to the island of Cebu from the explorer Magellan – it purportedly has powers to answer prayers
1 Luther, bothered by Tetzel’s tactics, Luther wrote down 95 issues and nailed it on the door of the local castle’s church Salvation was thru faith in God’s gift of salvation All church teachings should be clearly based on the Bible All people with faith were equal and therefore one did not need the church to interpret for them
Asked to recant, Luther said he was bound by the word of God found in his bible (pictured)
Already excommunicated, Luther was declared a heretic & outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor in He returned home in 1522 and found followers waiting for him. These followers were called Lutherans
Although it was a Christian world, the old beliefs in folklore, especially magic & spirits mixed nicely with Christian beliefs in miracles, saints, and devils People looked for supernatural explanations for natural events.
The fear of witches swept across Europe and a wide-scale effort was made to eradicate all witches. Over 3,000 people would be put to death in Germany between
Notable Actions Edict of Worms – HRE Charles V declared Luther an outlaw & heretic Lutherans – formed outside Catholic Church – sermons in German & ministers allowed to marry Protestants – anyone non-Catholic Peace of Augsburg – allowed each German ruler to choose which religion would be followed in their state. Didn’t solve problem because it didn’t recognize Lutherans or Calvinism.
Henry VIII Because his wife had not produced a male heir, Henry wanted the marriage annulled. Since the church had previously ruled for Henry that her previous marriage to his brother (who died 6 months later) had never been consummated, now they had to say it had and this would be grounds for Henry’s divorce The pope was in a sticky situation because he had named Henry the “Defender of the Faith” so there was an allegiance there, but Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor and Catherine’s newphew
In England, Henry VIII challenged papal authority and declared himself head of the Church of England. All images in churches were to be dismantled; stained glass, shrines, statues were defaced or destroyed; lofts and screens were cut down, bells were taken down; vestments were prohibited and either burned or sold; church plate was to be melted down or sold and the requirement of the clergy to be celibate was lifted; processions were banned;
Catherine of Aragon (Wife # 1) marriage annulled (to set aside, or to cancel) for not producing a male heir. Did have daughter who would later become Queen Mary Her parents were Ferdinand & Isabella (of Columbus fame). Her nephew was Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Anne Boleyn (Number II) Beheaded in 1536 for treason (affair plus incest with her brother (both lies). Her daughter was Elizabeth I
Jane Seymour Number III Died of fever from childbirth 1537 Her son, Edward VI died at the age of 16 after ruling for 6 years (either of tuberculosis, poisoning, or syphilis)
Anne of Cleves (Numero IV) Their marriage was annulled the same year (1540) because Henry “he had found his bride so unattractive that he could not bear to sleep with her”
Catherine Howard (Number 5) cousin of Anne Boleyn Beheaded 1542 for treason (admitted to an affair)
Queen Catherine Parr (Number 6)
Mary I of England ruled She brought back Catholicism to England and persecuted Protestants. Known as “ Bloody Mary” Her half-sister, Elizabeth I replaced her
The invasion by the Spanish Armada, and subsequent defeat began the decline of Spain and the rise of England