Presentation on theme: "1919 ~ 1939. The Lost Generation WWI had shaken many people’s long-held beliefs. Writers, artists, and musicians throughout the 1920s and 1930s expressed."— Presentation transcript:
1919 ~ 1939
The Lost Generation WWI had shaken many people’s long-held beliefs. Writers, artists, and musicians throughout the 1920s and 1930s expressed a loss of hope, rejecting former rules and moral values. They became known as the “Lost Generation”
National Movements The spirit of nationalism continued after WWI. Nations in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia struggled for self-determination. In many cases, nationalists were influenced by western ideas. Even so, they were determined to throw off western rule.
Turkish Nationalism Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Led a Turkish nationalist movement, overthrew the sultan, defeated western occupation forces, and declared Turkey a republic. “father of the Turks”
Modernize & Westernize Turkey Islamic law was replaced with a new law code, based on European models.Islamic law was replaced with a new law code, based on European models. Muslim calendar was replaced by the western (Christian) one. Muslim calendar was replaced by the western (Christian) one. People were required to wear western dress.People were required to wear western dress. State schools were set up. Arabic script was replaced by the western (Latin) alphabet.State schools were set up. Arabic script was replaced by the western (Latin) alphabet. Turkey was industrialized - roads, railroads, and factories were built.Turkey was industrialized - roads, railroads, and factories were built.
Iranian Nationalism Reza Khan Nationalists in Iran followed Turkey’s lead. In Iran, the British and Russia had carved out spheres of influence. In 1925, Khan, an army officer, overthrew the ruler of Iran – called the shah. He set up his own dynasty and called himself the shah.
Modernize & Westernize Iran Khan quickly tried to modernize and westernize Iran and make it fully independent. Factories, railroads, and roads were built. The army was strengthened. Western alphabet and dress were adopted and schools set up. Islamic law was replaced by new law codes. Women were encouraged to participate in public life. Khan had the support of wealthy urban Iranians, but not the Muslim religious leaders.
Arab Nationalism mandates During WWI, many Arabs had helped the Allies – in return they were promised independence. After the war, however, Britain and France divided up the Ottoman lands between themselves. They set up mandates, territories administered by European powers. France Syria ~ Lebanon Britain Palestine ~ Iraq
Pan-Arabism Pan- Arabism In the 1920s & 1930s, Arab nationalists sought to be free from control. The movement of Pan- Arabism sought to unify all Arab peoples based on their shared heritage.
Zionism This concept arose in the 1890s in Europe and Middle East. Jewish people wanted to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. The situation was complex, however, since Arab peoples were already living there. The Allies made conflicting promises during WWI. They promised the Arabs land that included Palestine and they pledged to set up a Jewish nation in the same region. As more Jews moved to Palestine to escape persecution in the 1930s tensions grew.
Chinese Nationalism China was in disarray after WWI. After Sun Yixian (Yat- sen), founder of the China Republic, stepped down, and rival warlords fought for power. The economy collapsed and the peasants faced great economic hardship. During this time, foreign powers – especially Japan – increased their influence in China. Sun Yixian (Yat-sen)
Rival Groups in China May Fourth Movement ~May Fourth Movement ~ a student movement that wanted to strengthen China through modernization. The movement turned to western science and to ideas like democracy & nationalism. CommunistsCommunists ~ Some turned to the ideas of Marx and Lenin. A Chinese communist party was formed. Nationalists GuomindangNationalists ~ Sun Yixian had formed the nationalist party, the Guomindang. After Sun Yixian’s death, an army officer named Jiang Jieshi (also known as Chiang Kai-Shek) took over the party.
Civil War At first, the nationalists and the communists had worked together to unite China. Over time Chiang Kai- Shek began to see the communists as a threat. A civil war broke out between the communists and the nationalists that would last for 22 years.
Women’s Suffrage In the mid-1800s in western democracies, women began to demand greater rights. These included property rights and suffrage, right to vote. The first country in which women gained the right to vote was New Zealand in In Britain, Parliament gave women over 30 the right to vote in 1918 & then all women over 21 by Women also gained the right to vote in Canada, Finland, Germany and Sweden in the early 1900s.
After WWI, economic problems emerged in Europe. Soldiers, returning home from the war, needed jobs. Nations had war debts to pay and cities to rebuild. The decade following the war, the European economies began a shaky recovery.
Great Depression On the other hand the USA experienced an economic boom after the war. It became the world’s leading economic power and made investments in Europe to promote recovery. These came to an end with the stock market crash in This event triggered the Great Depression of the 1930s, a time of global economic collapse.
Causes of the Great Depression Less Demand for Raw Materials Overproduction of Manufactured Goods The Stock Market Crash –Investors bought stock on margin, meaning they paid only part of the cost and borrowed the rest. In the fall of 1929, brokers began to call in their loans. When investors could not pay, financial panic followed and the stock prices crashed.
Banks and businesses closed. Millions of people out of work. Decreasing production of goods. Countries raised import tariffs to protect their own markets – decline in global trade. People lost faith in democracy & capitalism. Extremists arose and Communists celebrated as what they saw was a failure of capitalism. Strong authoritarian rulers rose! Impact of the Depression
The Rise of Fascism Widespread economic despair paved the way for the rise of dictators in countries like Italy and Germany The Fascist State –Censorship, and government control of media –Strict discipline –State control of economy –Extreme nationalism –Strong military –Use of violence and terror –Blind loyalty to leader
The Rise of Fascism FascismFascism is the rule of the people by dictatorial government that is nationalistic and imperialistic. Fascist governments are also anti-communist.
Mussolini in Italy Italy was troubled after WWI. Treaties had given away land that Italy expected to control. War veterans came home and could not find jobs. Trade was slow and taxes were high, workers went on strike.
Mussolini in Italy Mussolini took advantage of the unrest. He promised an end to unemployment and to gain more land for Italy. He vowed to outlaw rebellion among workers and stamp out all threats of communism.
In 1922 the Fascists used force and terror to gain control of Italy. They ended free elections, free speech and free press. Any political opponents were killed or jailed. Desperate for order the Italian people put the goals of the state ahead of their individual rights.
Weimar Republic After WWI the Kaiser stepped down and Germany was in chaos. The new democratic government called, the Weimar Republic, was politically weak. Inflation caused major economic problems. This all led to rise of the Nazis.
Nazis Rise to Power WWIWWI ~ debt, revenge, loss of German colonies. Weak GovernmentWeak Government ~ doubts about Weimar Republic, political quarrels, wanting a strong leader. Economic ProblemsEconomic Problems ~ inflation, depression, unemployment. LeadershipLeadership ~ use of terror and force, idea of a super race, shift of blame to minority groups In 1933 Hitler was appointed chancellor.
Nazi Rise to Power Adolf Hitler promised to provide jobs and rebuild German pride. Hitler preached that Germans were a superior race and destined to build a new empire.
Nazi Rise to Power Hitler’s Germany was called the Third Reich. He built a one-party government, ended civil rights, silenced his enemies by force, put businesses under government control, and employed many people in public works projects.
Nazi Rise to Power Hitler believed the Jewish people were the cause of Germany’s problems. He instituted anti- Semitic policies. He used propaganda to fuel these policies and feelings.
Nazi Rise to Power Nazis boycotted Jewish businesses, but by 1938 they were seizing Jewish property. The Nuremberg laws of 1935 stripped Jews of their rights.
Japan: Militarism & Expansion Greater democracy in 1920s. Great Depression made nation’s problems apparent. Militarists and extreme nationalists gained power.
Unhappiness over loss of traditions. Loss of foreign markets due to Great Depression. Unemployment. Poverty among peasants. Feelings of Nationalism. Demand for expansion of Japanese empire. Japan: Militarism & Expansion Causes
Rise of Militarists in Japan Effects 1931 – attack on Manchuria (Chinese province). Withdrawal from League of Nations. Anti-western feelings. End of many democratic freedoms. Renewed practice of traditions. Increased honor for emperor. Renewed expansion and efforts to control China.