I. Progressivism DEFINED Reform movement from 1900-1920 when reform-minded people wanted to better life in the US. They wanted to correct the problems that were caused by industrialization and existed during the Gilded Age. They wanted “progress” in social, economic, and political areas.
II. Goals of Progressivism Eliminate corruption in government Establish a more efficient government Expand government’s role as a guardian of the workers and the poor More governmental regulation of the economy Expanded role of government in protecting the human welfare
Goals of the Progressives: Expanded role of government in protecting the human welfare Prohibit or limit child labor Working conditions of women Establish minimum wage Work-place safety Limit working hours Caring for injured workers Assistance for Unemployed
III. Origins of the Progressives Populism Protested unfair, corrupt corporate practices and opposed monopolies Wanted the govt. to intervene and stop corruption to protect the consumer Proposed election reforms that would allow for more democracy (direct election of Senators) Wanted a graduated income tax
Origins of the Progressives Differences between the Populists and Progressives Populism was a rural movement; comprised of farmers and other lower- middle class workers Progressivism focused on urban problems such as unsafe working conditions, bad sanitation, political machines Progressives were middle-upper class, native born, college educated, men and women; social workers, engineers, writers, teachers, doctors, ministers, lawyers, small business owners…
Origins of the Progressive Movement Labor Movement 1. Unions sought to improve working conditions, wages, and reduce working hours Socialism Favored governmental control of the Economic and Political system Wanted to end capitalism Wanted to re-distribute wealth more equally
Origins of the Progressive Movement Muckrakers 1.Investigative journalists that exposed the problems in society in an attempt to bring about reform; their articles were published in McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, and Collier’s magazines 2.Given their name by Teddy Roosevelt; said they were too busy “raking at the muck at heir feet and ignored the glories of the heavens above”
Origins of the Progressive Movement 3.Notable muckrakers included: Ida Tarbell- History of the Standard Oil Company (abused committed by Standard Oil) Frank Norris- The Octopus (railroad corruption/monopolies) Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives (slum life in NYC) Lincoln Steffens- The Shame of the Cities (Political corruption) Upton Sinclair- The Jungle (meatpacking industry and capitalist greed) Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie – conditions of workers
IV. Progressive Legislation Municipal Reforms Commission System: Voters elect five commissioners without party affiliation but with expertise needed to head city departments such as fire, police, or public works; Galveston, TX was the first to use this system after a devastating hurricane in 1901
Progressive Municipal legislation City-Manager Plan: Voters elected a city council to make laws and set policy and the council in turn appointed a manager trained in city government Both reforms separated politics from government and showed the progressives’ faith in the use of experts and their fear of the power of immigrant voters
IV. Progressive State Reforms Direct primary: an election where voters choose the candidates who will later run in a general election Seventeenth Amendment: US Senators will now be elected by the people and NOT by state legislators; much more democratic Secret Ballot: voters could not be pressured to vote for certain candidates; all candidates were now on one ballot and not on easily identifiable separate colored ballots
IV. Progressive’s State Reforms Initiative: Allows voters to introduce NEW legislation by gathering signatures on a petition; if the required signatures are collected then the legislature has to consider the proposed law Referendum: Allows voters to CHANGE a law already in place; also done by gathering signatures on a petition Recall: Allows voters to REMOVE an elected official from office by holding a new election
IV. Progressive State Reforms Fire Safety Standards: passed as a result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire A fire started as workers were leaving work in an overcrowded sweatshop There were only 2 stairways in the 10 story building and the exit doors were locked 146 people died; many people jumped to their death to escape the flames
IV. Progressive Federal Reforms Federal Reforms Sixteenth Amendment: established a graduated income tax Seventeenth Amendment: Direct election of Senators Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibited alcohol Nineteenth Amendment: Gave women the right to vote Hepburn Act: authorized the ICC to set railroad rates and to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce (pipelines and ferries)
Progressive Federal Reforms Meat Inspection Act: required government inspection of meat shipped from one state to another Pure Food and Drug Act: outlawed sale of food and medicine that contained harmful ingredients; required containers to have ingredient labels
V. Reformers & Reform Movements Reformers/Reform Movements Robert La Follette: Progressive Wisconsin Governor who instituted several progressive reforms (direct primary, taxed railroad and utilities companies, created commissions to regulate corporations, backed labor legislation, and supported conservation) Florence Kelley: social worker at Hull House who fought to end child labor and improve women’s work hours; helped write factory inspection laws Supreme Court ruled in favor of a 10 hour work day in Muller v. Oregon, 1908
V. Reformers & Reform Movements Jane Addams: founder of Hull House and a co-founder of the NAACP WEB DuBois: a co-founder of the NAACP that worked towards social reforms that would ensure equal rights for African- Americans
“ Progressive Era”- 1900-1920; when people worked to rid the corruption in society; progressives were educated like teachers, lawyers, ministers, doctors, middle-upper class. They formed such groups as NAACP. Upton Sinclair and The Jungle- wrote about the problems of capitalism; wrote about problems in the meat-packing industry Muckrakers- journalists who exposed corruption in society in hopes of bringing about change; other muckrakers include Tarbell, Riis, Norris and Steffens THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle, published in 1906, led President Theodore Roosevelt and Congress to approve — A changes in the meatpacking industry with the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. B federal laws designed to regulate the railroad companies. C laws prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, or sale of alcoholic beverages. D the creation of new national parks to save wilderness areas for future generations. Muckrakers PRACTICE
In 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed by African Americans and whites under the leadership of — A Booker T. Washington. B Martin Luther King, Jr. C W.E.B. Du Bois. D Marcus Garvey.
V. Reformers & Reform Movements Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Group that led the fight against alcohol; they wanted prohibition (to outlaw alcohol) Believed alcohol was responsible for unemployment, crime, and the break-up of families Carry Nation was a radical temperance crusader. Her husband died from heavy drinking and so she went in saloons with a hatchet and smashed kegs and liquor bottles 18 th amendment was ratified in 1919 which banned the manufacture, sale, and importation of alcoholic beverages led by Frances Willard
V. Reformers & Reform Movements Women’s Suffrage &Suffragists Strategies- 1. National Women’s Suffrage Association- led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Susan B. Anthony who pushed an amendment to the Constitution allowing women the right to vote 2. American Women’s Suffrage Association- led by Lucy Stone and her husband Henry Blackwell who favored a state by state approach
V. Reforms and Reform Movements Between 1910-1914, seven western states allowed women the right to vote; women had “proven” themselves out west; voting rights also hoped to encourage women to move west Women campaigned against Wilson when he didn’t support them in 1916; they picketed the White House, led hunger strikes in prison, etc. Women’s patriotism during WWI helped weaken opposition to women’s suffrage The 19 th amendment was ratified in 1920
VI. Progressive Presidents Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt Other offices before President: Vice President, NY State Legislature, Sec. of Navy, organized Roughriders, NY Governor Became President when McKinley was assassinated in 1901 by an anarchist
VI. The Progressive President Saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” – place to preach the ideas he advocated. He took a “hands-on” approach to governing and used his position as president to get things done and speak out on important issues Reversed tradition of strong Congress, weak President – used personal magnetism to bypass congressional opposition – became 1 st modern President
VI. Progressive Presidents Strongest in area of conservation – wanted to save nation’s forests by preventing short-sighted over cutting Took millions of acres of public land off the market Established US Forest Service, National Park Service Supported irrigation in western lands
V. Progressive Presidents Provided for managed use of nation’s resources through national forests, creation of national parks & national game preserves – set aside 150 million acres Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) allowed money from the sales of public land to be used for irrigation and fixing damaged land
Map 21-1 The growth of National Forests and National Parks Rapid exploitation of the West prompted demands to preserve its spectacular scenery and protect its remaining forests. In 1872 Yellowstone became the first National Park, and the National Forest system began in the 1890s. Conservation became increasingly important during the Progressive Era but often provoked Western hostility.
VI. Progressive Presidents Trustbusting- breaking up monopolies Drove small companies out of business by lowering prices Distinguished between ‘good’ trusts and ‘bad’ trusts- he concentrated on breaking up those monopolies that were bad for the public as a whole; size didn’t matter
Roosevelt Roosevelt enjoyed this cartoon illustrating his distinction between good trusts, retrained by government regulations for public welfare, and bad trusts. On those he put his foot down.The Granger Collection, New York
TRUSTBUSTING COULD PREVENT FUTURE EVENTS LIKE PRIOR PULLMAN STRIKE & Haymarket Riot.
VI. Progressive Presidents TR kept an eye on the “good” monopolies to make sure that they didn’t take advantage of consumers Filed 44 anti-trust lawsuits against “bad” corporations Went after Northern Securities Company - as a monopoly it dominated rail service from Chicago to Pacific Ocean – and developed image as defender of public interest
VI. Progressive President Settled strikes – United Mine Workers (UMW) struck to get 20% pay increase, 8 hour workday, and recognition of union Roosevelt stepped in & urged arbitration- when a third neutral party listens to both sides and settles the dispute; the decision is legally binding
Commerce Department's Bureau of Corporations Chief George Cotelyou
Panic of 1907 Tennessee Iron and Coal Company Acquisition
VI. Progressive President Owners wouldn’t agree at first and TR threatened to send in troops – owners then agreed– each got a part of what they wanted Promised all sides they would get a ‘square deal’ in the arbitration “Square Deal” became TR’s 1904 campaign slogan His promise to be fair in dealing with labor unions, businesses, and consumers
VI. Progressive President Consumer Issues – Meat Inspection Act of 1906- after The Jungle was published; inspection of meat shipped from one state to another Pure Food & Drug Act – forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food or medicine containing harmful ingredients; they must carry labels Interstate Commerce Commission – regulated shipping – railroad 1 st, then other companies in interstate commerce
During the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, Congress passed two important consumer protection acts that became part of Roosevelt’s Square Deal. These two acts were the — A Sherman Antitrust Act and the Volstead Act. B Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. C Wagner Act and the Taft-Hartley Act. D Pendleton Act and the Interstate Commerce Act.
“MY Policies” Northern Securities Case, 1901 Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902 Railway Regulation (Elkins &Hepburn Acts) (Elkins &Hepburn Acts) Consumer Protection (Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act) Conservation Program
VI. The Progressive Presidents William Howard Taft Filed 90 anti-trust suits (more than TR, including Standard Oil & American Tobacco) 16th amendment-graduated income tax 17 amendment- allowed people to vote for US Senators instead of state legislators
VI. The Progressive Presidents Created the Dept. of Labor to enforce labor laws Passed mine safety laws Est. an 8-hour workday for companies doing business w/ the federal govt. Added vast areas to our forest reserves Passed the Mann-Elkins Act that extended the powers of the ICC to telephone/telegraph companies Est. Federal Children’s bureau Saw presidency as administrative post, not a bully pulpit – never achieved Roosevelt’s acclaim
VI. The Progressive Presidents Taft angered many Progressives Taft (and Progressives) favored lower tariffs that would reduce prices for consumers However, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs Taft could have vetoed the bill but didn’t have the political skill to oppose conservatives who supported the tariff
VI. The Progressive Presidents Ballinger-Pinchot Affair Taft’s Sec. Of the Interior, Richard Ballinger, thought TR had exceeded his authority by stopping the sale of public lands so he approved a vast area of timberland in Alaska to be sold The head of the US Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, criticized Ballinger for favoring private interest over conservation Taft fired Pinchot for his criticism of Ballinger Progressives thought Taft was weak on conservation Roosevelt was upset with his failure to exert strong public leadership
VI. The Progressive President Election of 1912 The Republican party splits when TR and Taft both run Taft receives the party’s nomination and TR begins the Progressive Party or “Bull Moose” party
VI. The Progressive Presidents 1912 Presidential candidates” Democrats – Woodrow Wilson Republicans – Taft Progressive- TR Socialists – Eugene Debs Wilson won an electoral landslide but only 42% of popular vote 3 rd party is always a splinter party.
The New Ted “New Nationalism” Progressive Party (aka ‘Bull moose”) Women’s Suffrage Child Labor Laws Direct Election of Senators Lower Tariff
“We stand at Armageddon and do battle for the Lord!” TR, 1912 Progressive Convention
VI. The Progressive Presidents Wilson Campaigned for “New Freedom” – restoring competition, do away with trusts Underwood Tariff – reduced tariffs to lowest level in 50 yrs., high tariffs supported big business, protected them from foreign competition – by lowering tariffs he was lowering prices Federal Reserve Act – 3 level banking system made up of the Federal Reserve Board, 12 District banks, and private banks; It controls the amount of money in circulation by raising or lowering interest rates
VI. The Progressive Presidents WOODROW WILSON Clayton Antitrust Act – broadened and strengthened the Sherman Act Federal Trade Commission- est. to investigate corporations and order them to stop unfair or fraudulent trading & business practices; the courts were used to enforce their rulings Signed law regulating use of children as workers; was struck down by Supreme Court – said matter for state courts
VI. The Progressive Presidents WOODROW WILSON Workmen’s Compensation – provided benefits to fed. workers injured on the job Eighteenth Amendment – banned alcohol Nineteenth Amendment – granted women full voting rights Nominates Louis Brandeis to the US Supreme Court Wilson wins re-election in 1916 by promising to keep us out of war
Mark Twain on TR We are insane, each in our own way, and with insanity goes irresponsibility. Theodore the man is sane; in fairness we ought to keep in mind that Theodore, as statesman and politician, is insane and irresponsible.
One difference between Populists and Progressives involves the fact that Populists were mainly farmers. Progressives, on the other hand, came MOSTLY from the — A ranks of political radicals, such as anarchists and socialists. B politically conservative class, which wanted to maintain the status quo. C middle class of teachers, reporters, social workers, and businessmen. D Irish and Italian immigrants, who wanted political and economic equality. POPULIST VERSUS PROGRESSIVES