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TR and the Progressive Era

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1 TR and the Progressive Era

2 Wimpy Asthmatic Kid Born 1858

3 Mr. Jock

4 Hah vard

5 N.Y State Legislator

6 Cowboy Teddy,

7 Civil Servant, 1889-1898 Civil Service Commissioner
NYC Police Commissioner Asst. Sec. of the Navy

8 War Hero,

9 Governor of New York

10 1900 VP

11 Mr. President

12 “The Bully Pulpit”

13 I. Progressivism DEFINED
Reform movement from when reform-minded people wanted to better life in the US. They wanted to correct the problems that were caused by industrialization and existed during the Gilded Age. They wanted “progress” in social, economic, and political areas.

14 II. Goals of Progressivism
Eliminate corruption in government Establish a more efficient government Expand government’s role as a guardian of the workers and the poor More governmental regulation of the economy Expanded role of government in protecting the human welfare

15 Goals of the Progressives:
Expanded role of government in protecting the human welfare Prohibit or limit child labor Working conditions of women Establish minimum wage Work-place safety Limit working hours Caring for injured workers Assistance for Unemployed

16 III. Origins of the Progressives
Populism Protested unfair, corrupt corporate practices and opposed monopolies Wanted the govt. to intervene and stop corruption to protect the consumer Proposed election reforms that would allow for more democracy (direct election of Senators) Wanted a graduated income tax

17 Origins of the Progressives
Differences between the Populists and Progressives Populism was a rural movement; comprised of farmers and other lower- middle class workers Progressivism focused on urban problems such as unsafe working conditions, bad sanitation, political machines Progressives were middle-upper class, native born, college educated, men and women; social workers, engineers, writers, teachers, doctors, ministers, lawyers, small business owners…

18 Origins of the Progressive Movement
Labor Movement 1. Unions sought to improve working conditions, wages, and reduce working hours Socialism Favored governmental control of the Economic and Political system Wanted to end capitalism Wanted to re-distribute wealth more equally

19 Origins of the Progressive Movement
Muckrakers 1.Investigative journalists that exposed the problems in society in an attempt to bring about reform; their articles were published in McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, and Collier’s magazines 2.Given their name by Teddy Roosevelt; said they were too busy “raking at the muck at heir feet and ignored the glories of the heavens above”

20 Origins of the Progressive Movement
3.Notable muckrakers included: Ida Tarbell- History of the Standard Oil Company (abused committed by Standard Oil) Frank Norris- The Octopus (railroad corruption/monopolies) Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives (slum life in NYC) Lincoln Steffens- The Shame of the Cities (Political corruption) Upton Sinclair- The Jungle (meatpacking industry and capitalist greed) Theodore Dreiser – Sister Carrie – conditions of workers

21 Jacob Riis: Photographer

22 Bandit’s Roost 591/2 Mulberry Street (Ca. 1888)

23 Italian Rag Picker (1888)

24 IV. Progressive Legislation
 Municipal Reforms Commission System: Voters elect five commissioners without party affiliation but with expertise needed to head city departments such as fire, police, or public works; Galveston, TX was the first to use this system after a devastating hurricane in 1901

25 Progressive Municipal legislation
City-Manager Plan: Voters elected a city council to make laws and set policy and the council in turn appointed a manager trained in city government Both reforms separated politics from government and showed the progressives’ faith in the use of experts and their fear of the power of immigrant voters

26 IV. Progressive State Reforms
Direct primary: an election where voters choose the candidates who will later run in a general election Seventeenth Amendment: US Senators will now be elected by the people and NOT by state legislators; much more democratic Secret Ballot: voters could not be pressured to vote for certain candidates; all candidates were now on one ballot and not on easily identifiable separate colored ballots

27 IV. Progressive’s State Reforms
Initiative: Allows voters to introduce NEW legislation by gathering signatures on a petition; if the required signatures are collected then the legislature has to consider the proposed law Referendum: Allows voters to CHANGE a law already in place; also done by gathering signatures on a petition Recall: Allows voters to REMOVE an elected official from office by holding a new election

28 IV. Progressive State Reforms
Fire Safety Standards: passed as a result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire A fire started as workers were leaving work in an overcrowded sweatshop There were only 2 stairways in the 10 story building and the exit doors were locked 146 people died; many people jumped to their death to escape the flames

29 IV. Progressive Federal Reforms
Sixteenth Amendment: established a graduated income tax Seventeenth Amendment: Direct election of Senators Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibited alcohol Nineteenth Amendment: Gave women the right to vote Hepburn Act: authorized the ICC to set railroad rates and to regulate other companies engaged in interstate commerce (pipelines and ferries)

30 Progressive Federal Reforms
Meat Inspection Act: required government inspection of meat shipped from one state to another Pure Food and Drug Act: outlawed sale of food and medicine that contained harmful ingredients; required containers to have ingredient labels

31 Chicago Stockyards

32 V. Reformers & Reform Movements
Robert La Follette: Progressive Wisconsin Governor who instituted several progressive reforms (direct primary, taxed railroad and utilities companies, created commissions to regulate corporations, backed labor legislation, and supported conservation) Florence Kelley: social worker at Hull House who fought to end child labor and improve women’s work hours; helped write factory inspection laws Supreme Court ruled in favor of a 10 hour work day in Muller v. Oregon, 1908

33 With John Muir at Yosemite

34 V. Reformers & Reform Movements
Jane Addams: founder of Hull House and a co-founder of the NAACP WEB DuBois: a co-founder of the NAACP that worked towards social reforms that would ensure equal rights for African-Americans

35 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA “Progressive Era” ; when people worked to rid the corruption in society; progressives were educated like teachers, lawyers, ministers, doctors, middle-upper class. They formed such groups as NAACP. Upton Sinclair and The Jungle- wrote about the problems of capitalism; wrote about problems in the meat-packing industry Muckrakers- journalists who exposed corruption in society in hopes of bringing about change; other muckrakers include Tarbell, Riis, Norris and Steffens

36 Muckrakers PRACTICE Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle, published in 1906, led President Theodore Roosevelt and Congress to approve — A changes in the meatpacking industry with the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. B federal laws designed to regulate the railroad companies. C laws prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, or sale of alcoholic beverages. D the creation of new national parks to save wilderness areas for future generations. Correct answer is A

37 was formed by African Americans and whites under the leadership of —
In 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed by African Americans and whites under the leadership of — A Booker T. Washington. B Martin Luther King, Jr. C W.E.B. Du Bois. D Marcus Garvey. A is correct

38 V. Reformers & Reform Movements
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Group that led the fight against alcohol; they wanted prohibition (to outlaw alcohol) Believed alcohol was responsible for unemployment, crime, and the break-up of families Carry Nation was a radical temperance crusader. Her husband died from heavy drinking and so she went in saloons with a hatchet and smashed kegs and liquor bottles 18th amendment was ratified in 1919 which banned the manufacture, sale, and importation of alcoholic beverages led by Frances Willard

39 V. Reformers & Reform Movements
Women’s Suffrage &Suffragists Strategies- 1. National Women’s Suffrage Association- led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Susan B. Anthony who pushed an amendment to the Constitution allowing women the right to vote 2. American Women’s Suffrage Association- led by Lucy Stone and her husband Henry Blackwell who favored a state by state approach

40 V. Reforms and Reform Movements
Between , seven western states allowed women the right to vote; women had “proven” themselves out west; voting rights also hoped to encourage women to move west Women campaigned against Wilson when he didn’t support them in 1916; they picketed the White House, led hunger strikes in prison, etc. Women’s patriotism during WWI helped weaken opposition to women’s suffrage The 19th amendment was ratified in 1920

41 VI. Progressive Presidents
Theodore Roosevelt Other offices before President: Vice President, NY State Legislature, Sec. of Navy, organized Roughriders, NY Governor Became President when McKinley was assassinated in 1901 by an anarchist

42 VI. The Progressive President
Saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” – place to preach the ideas he advocated. He took a “hands-on” approach to governing and used his position as president to get things done and speak out on important issues Reversed tradition of strong Congress, weak President – used personal magnetism to bypass congressional opposition – became 1st modern President

43 VI. Progressive Presidents
Strongest in area of conservation – wanted to save nation’s forests by preventing short-sighted over cutting Took millions of acres of public land off the market Established US Forest Service, National Park Service Supported irrigation in western lands

44 With John Muir at Yosemite

45 V. Progressive Presidents
Provided for managed use of nation’s resources through national forests, creation of national parks & national game preserves – set aside 150 million acres Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) allowed money from the sales of public land to be used for irrigation and fixing damaged land

46 Map 21-1 The growth of National Forests and National Parks
Rapid exploitation of the West prompted demands to preserve its spectacular scenery and protect its remaining forests. In 1872 Yellowstone became the first National Park, and the National Forest system began in the 1890s. Conservation became increasingly important during the Progressive Era but often provoked Western hostility.

47 VI. Progressive Presidents
Trustbusting- breaking up monopolies Drove small companies out of business by lowering prices Distinguished between ‘good’ trusts and ‘bad’ trusts- he concentrated on breaking up those monopolies that were bad for the public as a whole; size didn’t matter

48 Roosevelt Roosevelt enjoyed this cartoon illustrating his distinction between good trusts, retrained by government regulations for public welfare, and bad trusts. On those he put his foot down.The Granger Collection, New York


50 Gifford Pinchot, National Forrester

51 VI. Progressive Presidents
TR kept an eye on the “good” monopolies to make sure that they didn’t take advantage of consumers Filed 44 anti-trust lawsuits against “bad” corporations Went after Northern Securities Company - as a monopoly it dominated rail service from Chicago to Pacific Ocean – and developed image as defender of public interest

52 TR’s Trust Policies

53 VI. Progressive President
Settled strikes – United Mine Workers (UMW) struck to get 20% pay increase, 8 hour workday, and recognition of union Roosevelt stepped in & urged arbitration- when a third neutral party listens to both sides and settles the dispute; the decision is legally binding

54 Commerce Department's Bureau of Corporations Chief George Cotelyou

55 Standard Oil

56 Tennessee Iron and Coal Company Acquisition
Panic of 1907 Tennessee Iron and Coal Company Acquisition

57 VI. Progressive President
Owners wouldn’t agree at first and TR threatened to send in troops – owners then agreed– each got a part of what they wanted Promised all sides they would get a ‘square deal’ in the arbitration “Square Deal” became TR’s 1904 campaign slogan His promise to be fair in dealing with labor unions, businesses, and consumers

58 “Square Deal”

59 VI. Progressive President
Consumer Issues – Meat Inspection Act of after The Jungle was published; inspection of meat shipped from one state to another Pure Food & Drug Act – forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of food or medicine containing harmful ingredients; they must carry labels Interstate Commerce Commission – regulated shipping – railroad 1st, then other companies in interstate commerce

60 These two acts were the —
During the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt, Congress passed two important consumer protection acts that became part of Roosevelt’s Square Deal. These two acts were the — A Sherman Antitrust Act and the Volstead Act. B Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act. C Wagner Act and the Taft-Hartley Act. D Pendleton Act and the Interstate Commerce Act. B is correct

61 “MY Policies” Northern Securities Case, 1901
Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902 Railway Regulation (Elkins &Hepburn Acts) Consumer Protection (Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act) Conservation Program

62 Roosevelts builds the Panama Canal (1904-1914)

63 Roosevelt and Monroe Doctrine


65 Panama Canal


67 Public Confidence

68 Election of 1904

69 Map 21-2 The Election of 1912 The split within the Republican party enabled Woodrow Wilson to carry most states and become president even though he won only a minority of the popular vote.


71 A Really BIG Mistake?

72 1908 Handpicked for Election 1908

73 Bull Moose + Elephant = Democratic Donkey
Election of 1912 split the ticket TAFT TR = Wilson

74 Woodrow the Wimp and Taft




78 Governor-General of the Philippines


80 VI. The Progressive Presidents
William Howard Taft Filed 90 anti-trust suits (more than TR, including Standard Oil & American Tobacco) 16th amendment-graduated income tax 17 amendment- allowed people to vote for US Senators instead of state legislators

81 VI. The Progressive Presidents
Created the Dept. of Labor to enforce labor laws Passed mine safety laws Est. an 8-hour workday for companies doing business w/ the federal govt. Added vast areas to our forest reserves Passed the Mann-Elkins Act that extended the powers of the ICC to telephone/telegraph companies Est. Federal Children’s bureau Saw presidency as administrative post, not a bully pulpit – never achieved Roosevelt’s acclaim

82 VI. The Progressive Presidents
Taft angered many Progressives Taft (and Progressives) favored lower tariffs that would reduce prices for consumers However, Congress passed a bill that raised tariffs Taft could have vetoed the bill but didn’t have the political skill to oppose conservatives who supported the tariff

83 VI. The Progressive Presidents
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair Taft’s Sec. Of the Interior, Richard Ballinger, thought TR had exceeded his authority by stopping the sale of public lands so he approved a vast area of timberland in Alaska to be sold The head of the US Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, criticized Ballinger for favoring private interest over conservation Taft fired Pinchot for his criticism of Ballinger Progressives thought Taft was weak on conservation Roosevelt was upset with his failure to exert strong public leadership

84 VI. The Progressive President
Election of 1912 The Republican party splits when TR and Taft both run Taft receives the party’s nomination and TR begins the Progressive Party or “Bull Moose” party

85 VI. The Progressive Presidents
1912 Presidential candidates” Democrats – Woodrow Wilson Republicans – Taft Progressive- TR Socialists – Eugene Debs Wilson won an electoral landslide but only 42% of popular vote 3rd party is always a splinter party.

86 The New Ted “New Nationalism” Progressive Party (aka ‘Bull moose”)
Women’s Suffrage Child Labor Laws Direct Election of Senators Lower Tariff

87 “We stand at Armageddon and do battle for the Lord
“We stand at Armageddon and do battle for the Lord!” TR, 1912 Progressive Convention

88 The Ghost of 1904

89 Woodrow the Wimp

90 VI. The Progressive Presidents
Wilson Campaigned for “New Freedom” – restoring competition, do away with trusts Underwood Tariff – reduced tariffs to lowest level in 50 yrs., high tariffs supported big business, protected them from foreign competition – by lowering tariffs he was lowering prices Federal Reserve Act – 3 level banking system made up of the Federal Reserve Board, 12 District banks, and private banks; It controls the amount of money in circulation by raising or lowering interest rates

91 Woodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom”


93 VI. The Progressive Presidents
WOODROW WILSON Clayton Antitrust Act – broadened and strengthened the Sherman Act Federal Trade Commission- est. to investigate corporations and order them to stop unfair or fraudulent trading & business practices; the courts were used to enforce their rulings Signed law regulating use of children as workers; was struck down by Supreme Court – said matter for state courts

94 VI. The Progressive Presidents
WOODROW WILSON Workmen’s Compensation – provided benefits to fed. workers injured on the job Eighteenth Amendment – banned alcohol Nineteenth Amendment – granted women full voting rights Nominates Louis Brandeis to the US Supreme Court Wilson wins re-election in 1916 by promising to keep us out of war

95 19TH Amendment & Progressives

96 A BIG Thank You , Mr. Taft

97 Progressive President
Tariff Reduction Federal Reserve Clayton Anti-Trust FTC 17th Amendment 18th Amendment 19th Amendment

98 Mark Twain on TR We are insane, each in our own way, and with insanity goes irresponsibility. Theodore the man is sane; in fairness we ought to keep in mind that Theodore, as statesman and politician, is insane and irresponsible.

99 Teddy the Great?

100 Ted Dead

101 Panamanian “Revolution?”

102 A ranks of political radicals, such as anarchists and socialists.
POPULIST VERSUS PROGRESSIVES One difference between Populists and Progressives involves the fact that Populists were mainly farmers. Progressives, on the other hand, came MOSTLY from the — A ranks of political radicals, such as anarchists and socialists. B politically conservative class, which wanted to maintain the status quo. C middle class of teachers, reporters, social workers, and businessmen. D Irish and Italian immigrants, who wanted political and economic equality. C is correct

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