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AN INDUSTRIAL GIANT Essentials of Industrial Growth

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1 AN INDUSTRIAL GIANT Essentials of Industrial Growth
American manufacturing flourished in the last quarter of the nineteenth century new natural resources were discovered and exploited, creating opportunities that attracted the brightest and most energetic Americans the national market grew, protected from foreign competition by tariffs, and foreign capital entered the market freely

2 European immigrants provided the additional labor needed for industrial expansion
advances in science and technology created new machines and power sources, which increased productivity

3 Railroads: The First Big Business
in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, railroads were probably the most significant element in American economic development important as an industry themselves, railroads also contributed to the growth and development of other industries railroads developed into larger and more integrated systems, and their executives, including Cornelius Vanderbilt and Jay Gould, became some of the most powerful and wealthiest people in the country

4 railroad equipment became standardized, as did time zones
land grant railroads helped to settle the West by selling their lands cheaply and on easy terms to settlers new railroad technology, including the air brake and more powerful locomotives, made it possible for larger trains to travel at faster speeds

5 Iron, Oil, and Electricity
the transformation of iron manufacturing affected the United States almost as much as the development of railroads new techniques, including the Bessemer process, made possible mass production of steel huge supply of iron ore and coal in U.S. allowed for rapid growth of steel production the Mesabi range yielded enormous quantities of easily mined iron Pittsburgh, surrounded by vast coal deposits, became the iron and steel center of the country

6 the petroleum industry expanded even more spectacularly than iron and steel
new refining techniques enabled refiners to increase the production of kerosene, which, until the development of the gasoline engine, was the most important petroleum product technological advances and the growth of an urban society led to the creation of new industries, such as the telephone and electric light businesses

7 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, and his invention quickly proved its practical value of all Edison’s many inventions, the most significant was the incandescent light bulb the Edison Illuminating Company opened a power station in New York, and power stations began to appear everywhere the substitution of electric for steam power in factories had an impact comparable to the substitution of steam for water power before the Civil War

8 Competition and Monopoly: The Railroads
growing importance of expensive machinery and economies of scale led to economic concentration deflationary pressures after 1873 led to falling prices and increased competition, which cut deeply into railroad profits railroads attempted to increase the volume of shipping by giving rebates, drawbacks, and other discounts to selected customers

9 sometimes these discounts were far beyond what the economies of bulk shipment justified; in order to make up these losses, railroads charged higher rates in areas where no competition existed combination of lost revenue from rate cutting and inflated debts forced several railroads into receivership in the 1870s in the 1880s, major railroads responded to those pressures by creating interregional systems these became the first giant corporations

10 Competition and Monopoly: Steel
the iron and steel industry was also intensely competitive; production continued to increase, but demand varied erratically Andrew Carnegie used his talents as a salesman and administrator, along with his belief in technological improvements, to create Carnegie Steel Company, which dominated the industry alarmed by Carnegie’s control of the industry, makers of finished steel products began to combine and considered entering primary production

11 in response, Carnegie threatened to turn out finished products
J. P. Morgan averted a steel war by buying out Carnegie, his main competitor, and the main fabricators of finished products the new combination, United States Steel, was the first billion-dollar corporation Carnegie retired to devote his life to philanthropy

12 Competition and Monopoly: Oil
competition among refiners led to combination and monopoly in the petroleum industry John D. Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company in 1870 he used technological advances and employed both fair and unfair means to destroy his competition or to persuade them to join forces by 1879, Rockefeller controlled 90 % of nation’s oil refining capacity to maintain monopoly, Rockefeller developed a new type of business organization, the trust

13 Competition and Monopoly: Utilities and Retailing
utilities, such as the telephone and electric lighting industries, also formed monopolies in order to prevent costly duplication of equipment and to protect patents Bell and Edison fought lengthy and expensive court battles to defend their inventions from imitators and competitors competition between General Electric Company and Westinghouse dominated the electric lighting industry

14 the life insurance business expanded after the Civil War, and it, too, became dominated by a few large companies in retailing, this period saw the emergence of urban department stores, including Wanamaker’s and Marshall Field the department stores advertised heavily and stressed low prices, efficient service, and guaranteed products

15 Americans Ambivalence to Big Business
the expansion of industry and its concentration in fewer hands changed the way many people felt about the role of government in economic and social affairs although Americans disliked powerful government and strict regulation of the economy, they did not object to all government involvement in the economic sphere the growth of huge industrial and financial organizations frightened many people

16 at the same time, people wanted the goods and services big business produced
the public worried that monopolists would raise prices; still more significant was the fear that monopolies would destroy economic opportunity and threaten democratic institutions

17 Reformers: George, Bellamy, Lloyd
the popularity of several reformers reflected the growing concern over the maldistribution of wealth and the power of corporations in Progress and Poverty (1879), Henry George argued that labor was only true source of capital he proposed a “single tax” on wealth produced by appreciation of land values Edward Bellamy’s utopian novel, Looking Backward (1888), described a future in which America was completely socialized and carefully planned

18 Bellamy’s ideal socialist state arrived without revolution or violence
Henry Demarest Lloyd’s Wealth Against Commonwealth (1894) denounced the Standard Oil Company his forceful but uncomplicated arguments made Lloyd’s book convincing to thousands despite their criticisms, these writers did not question the underlying values of the middle class majority, and they insisted that reform could be accomplished without serious inconvenience to any individual or class

19 Reformers: The Marxists
by the 1870s, the ideas of the Marxian socialists began to penetrate the United States; Marxist Socialist Labor party was founded in 1877 Laurence Gronlund’s The Cooperative Commonwealth (1884) attempted to explain Marxism to Americans leading voice of Socialist Labor party, Daniel De Leon, was a doctrinaire revolutionary who insisted that workers could improve their lot only by adopting socialism and joining Socialist Labor party he paid scant attention to the opinions or to the practical needs of common working people

20 The Government Reacts to Big Business: Railroad Regulation
political reaction to the growth of big business came first at the state level and dealt chiefly with the regulation of railroads strict railroad regulation resulted largely from agitation by the National Grange and focused on establishing reasonable maximum rates and outlawing unjust price discrimination in Munn v. Illinois (1877), the Supreme Court ruled that such regulations by states were constitutional when applied to businesses that served a public interest

21 however, the Supreme Court declared invalid an Illinois law prohibiting discriminatory rates between long and short hauls in the Wabash case (1886) on the ground that a state could not regulate interstate commerce the following year, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act, which required that railroad charges be reasonable and just it also outlawed rebates, drawbacks, and other competitive practices in addition, the act created the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first federal regulatory board, to supervise railroad regulation

22 The Government Reacts to Big Business: The Sherman Antitrust Act
first antitrust legislation originated in the states federal action came with the passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), which declared illegal trusts or other combinations in restraint of trade or commerce the Interstate Commerce Act sought to outlaw the excesses of competition; the Sherman Act intended to restore competition

23 the Supreme Court undermined the Sherman Act when it ruled that the American Sugar Refining Company, which controlled 98 percent of sugar refining, was engaged in manufacturing and therefore its dominance did not restrict trade in later cases, however, the Court ruled that agreements to fix prices did violate the Sherman Act

24 The Labor Union Movement
at the time of the Civil War, only a small percentage of American workers were organized, and most union members were skilled artisans, not factory workers the growth of national craft unions quickened after 1865 the National Labor Union was founded in 1866, but its leaders were out of touch with the practical needs and aspirations of workers they opposed the wage system, strikes, and anything that increased laborers’ sense of membership in the working class

25 their major objective was the formation of worker-owned cooperatives
founded in 1869, the Knights of Labor supported political objectives that had little to do with working conditions and rejected the idea that workers must resign themselves to remaining wage earners the Knights also rejected the grouping of workers by crafts and accepted blacks, women, and immigrants membership in the Knights grew in the 1880s, encouraged by successful strikes against railroads

26 in 1886, agitation for an eight-hour day gained wide support
clashes between workers and police in Chicago led to a protest meeting at Haymarket Square a bomb tossed into the crowd killed seven policemen and injured many others

27 The American Federation of Labor
the violence in Chicago damaged organized labor, especially the Knights of Labor, which the public associated with anarchy and violence membership in the Knights declined a combination of national craft unions, the American Federation of Labor, replaced the Knights of Labor as the leading labor union led by Adolph Strasser and Samuel Gompers, the AFL concentrated on organizing skilled workers

28 it fought for higher wages and shorter hours
the AFL accepted the fact that most workers would remain wage earners and used its organization to develop a sense of common purpose and pride among its members the AFL avoided direct involvement in politics and used the strike as its primary tool to improve working conditions

29 Labor Militancy Rebuffed
threatened by the growing size and power of their corporate employers, the substitution of machines for human skills, and the influx of foreign workers willing to accept low wages, labor grew increasingly militant in 1877, a railroad strike shut down two-thirds of the nation’s railroad mileage violence broke out, federal troops restored order, and the strike collapsed in 1892, violence marked the strike against Carnegie’s Homestead Steel plant

30 the defeat of the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers eliminated unionism as an effective force in the steel industry the most important strike of the period took place in 1894, when Eugene Debs’s American Railway Union struck the Pullman company President Cleveland broke the strike when he sent federal troops to ensure the movement of the mail when Debs defied a federal injunction to end the strike, he was jailed for contempt

31 Whither America, Whither Democracy?
each year more of America’s wealth and power seemed to fall into fewer hands bankers dominated major industries centralization increased efficiency but raised questions about the ultimate effects of big business on democracy the defeat of the Pullman strike demonstrated the power of courts to break strikes

32 the federal government obtained an injunction in that case by asserting that the American Railway Union was engaged in a combination in restraint of trade prohibited by the Sherman Act after the failure of the Pullman strike, Debs became a socialist

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