2Background Is the supreme law of the land of the United States of AmericaThe first three Articles of the Constitution establish the rules and separate powers of the three branches of the federal government: a legislature, an executive branch, and a federal judiciary headed by the Supreme Court.The President nominates new members to the Supreme Court, but the Senate must approve the nomination by a majority vote. This is part of the system of checks and balances that is supposed to prevent abuse of power.
3United States Constitution: The Bill of Rights The First 10 Amendments to the Constitution Take notes on the slides as they appear.
4Who determines what the Bill of Rights mean? The Supreme Court makes rulings on the meaningThe Supreme Court balances the rights of the individual with the needs of societyIndividual??Society??
51st AmendmentThe 1st Amendment guarantees freedom of religion, speech, the press, assembly, and petition.This means that we all have the right to:practice any religion we want toto speak freelyto assemble (meet)to address the government (petition)to publish newspapers, TV, radio, Internet (press)
7Establishment and free exercise clause often conflict with each other In schools, the religion issue is most prevalentIf a student raises his hand and says “teacher, can we say an opening prayer before this test”If the teacher says:“Yes”, It looks like establishment of religion“No”, It is deigning a student free exercise.
8'I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
9Establishment clause-Government Cans Cannot Teach about religions in schoolAllow voluntary prayer in many examplesTransport students to a religious schoolRead Bible for culture or literacy contentSet a state religionGovernment cannot order a prayerTeach religious doctrine in the schoolPay seminary teachersTeach creationism
10Free Exercise—The person Can Cannot Choose whatever religionLead a prayer in most examplesAsk questions about religionsWorship who ever you wantBreak the law and claim it is religious beliefRaise children without educationDeprave children of basic needs
11Free speech—limits on the person Threaten to blow up airplanes, schools or the presidentSexual harassmentCreate too much social chaosExtremely crude language in a public formDisrespectful, vulgar language in schoolsHate crimes
12Freedom of the press-the press Can Cannot Print any political positionMake fun of people, especially politiciansExpose wrongs by the governmentSay things you might not agree withLibel– intentionally injuring a person’s reputation by false factsDisclose defense-security secretsDetail how to make a certain weapons
13Freedom of Assembly--Individual Can Cannot ProtestParade (with a permit)Parade chanting hate slogansGang members can congregate in publicProtest by throwing rocks and breaking windowsHang out on private land against owners will—loiteringTeen curfew
142nd AmendmentThe 2nd Amendment protects the right to bear arms, which means the right to own a gun.
15Some people believe that the government is the enemy, and citizens must continue to protect themselves.Some believe that the level of violence is so high in the United States because the number of guns available is too high, and too many people have guns.There is a popular saying that, "If you outlaw guns, only outlaws will have guns." Another popular saying is, "Guns don't kill people, people do."
163rd AmendmentThe 3rd Amendment says “No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.”This means that we cannot be forced to house or quarter soldiers.
174th AmendmentThe 4th Amendment protects the people from unreasonable searches and seizures.This means that the police must have a warrant to enter our homes. It also means the government cannot take our property, papers, or us, without a valid warrant based on probable cause (good reason).
205th AmendmentThe 5th Amendment protects people from being held for committing a crime unless they are properly indicted, (accused)You may not be tried twice for the same crime (double jeopardy)You don’t have to testify against yourself in court. (Self-incrimination)
216th AmendmentThe 6th Amendment guarantees a speedy trial (you can’t be kept in jail for over a year without a trial)an impartial jury (doesn’t already think you are guilty)that the accused can confront witnesses against themthe accused must be allowed to have a lawyer
227th AmendmentThe 7th Amendment guarantees the right to a speedy civil trial.A civil trial differs from a criminal trial. A civil trial is when someone sues someone else. A criminal trial is when the state tries to convict someone of a crime.
238th AmendmentThe 8th Amendment guarantees that punishments will be fair and not cruel, and that extraordinarily large fines will not be set.
249th AmendmentAll rights not stated in the Constitution and not forbidden by the Constitution belong to the people.This means that the states can do what they want if the Constitution does not forbid it.
2510th AmendmentThe 10th Amendment states that any power not granted to the federal government belongs to the states or to the people.Examples: The states determine the rules for marriages, divorces, driving licenses, voting, state taxes, job and school requirements, rules for police and fire departments.
26The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized (established) in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment.
2714th AmendmentDoes the 14th Amendment give states more power, or place more limits on state power? How?Would each of these examples violate the Fourteenth Amendment? If so, which part? Explain.Arizona passes a law that babies born to illegal immigrants in Arizona are not U.S. citizens.Kansas law requires black and white children to go to different schools.A poor man in Florida is convicted of burglary and sent to prison, but did not have a lawyer because he could not afford one.