Presentation on theme: "Socialization and Change: A Journey through Crime, Drugs and Recovery David A. Deitch, PhD Professor of Clinical Psychiatry University of California, San."— Presentation transcript:
Socialization and Change: A Journey through Crime, Drugs and Recovery David A. Deitch, PhD Professor of Clinical Psychiatry University of California, San Diego Addiction Training Center
Overview A picture of current problems A brief look at what’s coming How we develop crime & drug taking Types of substance abusing offenders
Economic Costs Of the $620 billion total the states spent, $81.3 billion (13.1%) - was used to deal with substance abuse and addiction The states spend 113 times as much to clean up the devastation substance abuse and addiction visit on children as they do to prevent and treat it Each American paid $277 per year in state taxes to deal with the burden of substance abuse and addiction in their social programs and only $10 a year for prevention and treatment Of the $453.5 billion states spent in the 16 budget categories of public programs, $81.3 billion—(17.9%) percent--was linked to substance abuse and addiction The National Center of Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2000
The Search For Causes Natural Innate Drives Inherited Parts of Physical and Psychological Well-being Hunger Thirst Shelter Sex ( Physical Survival ) Altered Consciousness
The Search For Causes Disease Concept of Alcoholism Know Etiology Know Progression Know Outcome Genetic Model Adoption and Twin Studies Receptor Genes Son of Alcoholics and Tolerance Twin Studies
Defective Stimulus Barriers (Krystal-Raskin) Inability to Desomatise Emotions Mal-adaptive Narcissism (Wursmer) Defense Against Overwhelming Feelings of Rage and Loneliness Impoverished Self Esteem (Khamtzian) Lack of Capacity for Self Care and Poor Emotional Regulation
Tension and Stress Reduction Model Low Tolerance for Tension Stimulus Augmenting Drugs (CNS, D)) Reduce Tension = People Use it and Get this Response = Reinforcement Socio-Cultural Models Cultural Circumstances - Tension Attitude Toward Drug Taking Cultural; Substitutes as Means of Satisfaction Alienation – Anomie Neurotransmitters Brain Pleasure Centers Dopamine Re uptake Inhibition
Number of Juvenile Arrests Nationwide 1996 1.9 Million juvenile arrests, up 35.4% from 1987 93,000 Juveniles arrested for FBI Violent Index Crimes, up 59.9% from 1987 murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault 480,000 Juveniles arrested for FBI Property Index Crimes, up 7.9% from 1987 burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson Source: FBI Crime in the United States, 1996 – Table 32
Impact of Drugs on Criminality Age 7 13 18 28 Normal bell curve If drugs come into play
Role of Biology and Environment Crime / Antisocial Behavior Non Antisocial Parent/ Psychological Illness or Antisocial Environment Criminal Parent/ Non Criminal Adoptee Non Criminal Parent/ Non Criminal Adoptee Antisocial Parent/ Antisocial Adoptive Environment R.J. Cadoret, 1978, Archives of General Psychiatry
Birth Complications & Maternal Rejection % Violence A. Raine, 1994, Archives of General Psychiatry N=1750N=256 N=2064 N=191
Risk Factors Psychiatric Abusive/violent family Abusive/violent family Drug use environment Drug use environment Socialization Factors Socialization Factors Episodic Symptoms Episodic Symptoms Neuro/Limbic dysfunction Neuro/Limbic dysfunction Cognitive impairments Cognitive impairments External Vulnerabilities Inherent Vulnerabilities
How We Develop: Risk Factors Cascading Across Domains of Development &Time Age <1Difficult to soothe infant Age 2Coercive parent-child relationship Age 3Poor self-regulation & control Age 4Child rejected by pro-social peers Age 5 Child rejected by teacher Age 6 Child bonds to other rejected peers Age 7Poor school bonding
How We Develop Risk Factors Cascading Across Domains of Development & Time Age 8Poor academic achievement Age 9Minor infractions: lying, petty stealing Age 10Cigarette smoking Age 11Alcohol use Age 12Marihuana use, arrests Age 13 Risky sexual behavior Age 14Crack cocaine
How We Develop Remember: Social bonding is –Attachment to others in social unit –Investment in lines of action consistent with social unit –Belief in values of the unit
Bonding & Environment For example: –Abandonment –Foster care –Group homes –Juvenile detention –Prison How We Develop
Bonding & Environment All advance an education A sense of social definition… Their notion of the world and how to handle it -- “might is right” -- etc.
How We Develop Integration Inner Voices / Conscience Culture, atmosphere & reference points become deeply integrated It is our definition of self These become our inner voices These voices influence our attitudes and behavior
Behavior & Attitude PRO-SOCIAL OR ANTI-SOCIAL Depends on predominant behaviors Values & norms of those to whom we are bonded
Psychopaths Criminal Personality Prototypes ASPDs Perpetrators with criminal records Sociopaths All perpetrators of illegal, criminal and destructive acts Henry Richards, PhD, U Wash
Now What? The person who comes to us bonded, attached and has powerful inner voices.
Types of Substance Abusing Offenders Substance abusing offenders are not a homogenous group. A classification model: The Early Stage Substance Abuser The Addict The Dually Diagnosed Substance Abuser The Criminogenic Substance Abuser
The Early Stage Substance Abuser Early stage refers to experimental and recreational substance abusers whose crimes result from impaired judgment or disinhibition while under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol
The Addict Addicts are those for whom daily life is dedicated to drug-seeking behavior. Petty crime has become their primary means to support their addiction. Serious or violent crime is less prevalent in this group than in the criminogenic substance abuser.
The Dually Diagnosed Substance Abuser The mentally ill substance abuser, often referred to as dually diagnosed, has a concurrent mental illness and substance abuse problem.
The Criminogenic Substance Abuser Criminogenic substance abusers are those who do not wish to be part of mainstream society and have chosen to be members of outlaw subcultures. Their substance abuse is incidental to their criminal behavior.