Presentation on theme: "Confucian Philosophy. China in Spring and Autumn Ca. 500 BC End of Zhōu Dynasty Disintegration of state Rise of petty kings Social disruption everywhere."— Presentation transcript:
China in Spring and Autumn Ca. 500 BC End of Zhōu Dynasty Disintegration of state Rise of petty kings Social disruption everywhere
Confucius (孔夫子) 551 – 479 BC Aims at moral renewal of China In a return to the practices of the past Which reflect a Way of Thought or a Dào (道) followed in the past Which can be known through the study of the ancient literature. Confucianism is called the ‘School of Literati’ (儒家, Rújiā ) So he teaches the Dào
Sources: The ‘Five Classics’ Classic of Changes(易經, Yi Jīng) Classic of History(書經, Shū Jīng) Classic of Poetry(詩經, Shī Jīng) Book of Rites(禮記, Lǐ Jì) Spring and Autumn(春秋, Chūn Qiū)
Confucian Dào Fundamental teachings are in the ‘Four Books’ ‘Analects’ (論語, Lún Yǔ) Record of Confucius’s teaching ‘Great Learning’ ( 大學, Dà Xué) A chapter of the Classic of Rites ‘Doctrine of the Mean’ ( 中庸, Zhōng Yōng) Another chapter of the Rites ‘Mencius’ ( 孟子, Mèngzĭ) Written by Confucius’s great follower
Confucian Dào His Dào is a ‘Virtue Ethics’ Concerned with character not moral laws The right character expresses itself by right actions The right characters would bring social harmony The right characters are defined by their virtues To follow the Dào is to have the right Virtues
Rén ( 仁 ) Benevolence, humanheartedness, goodness, love, … we should feel an attachment to other people Between any two people is an appropriate attachment Which depends on the relationship between them Five relationships ( 五倫, wǔlún) Sovereign and subject Parent and child Husband and wife Elder and younger sibling Friends Appropriate actions express r é n – but what actions?
Lǐ ( 礼 ) Rites, conventions, propriety The Five Classics tell us how to behave They tell us how proper rén should be expressed They give guidelines – not strict rules The essence of lǐ is more important The essence of lǐ is rén Propriety comes from attachment to these forms of behaviour The lǐ were established by ancient sages If followed properly social harmony will result
Lǐ ( 礼 ) Proper application of lǐ requires that things be recognised for what they really are If a ‘king’ is not a real king, then applying the kingly lǐ to him will not lead to social harmony Confucius’s priority: the Rectification of Names ( 正名, zhèng míng)
Lǐ ( 礼 ) Analects 13.3 If names be not correct, language is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language be not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success. When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music do not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will not be properly awarded. When punishments are not properly awarded, the people do not know how to move hand or foot.”
Zhōng ( 忠 ) Analects 4.15 The Master said, Shên! My way has one (thread) that runs right through it. Master Tsêng said, Yes. When the Master had gone out, the disciples asked, saying What did he mean? Master Tsêng said, Our Master’s way is simply this: conscientiousness (zhōng,) consideration (shù.)
Zhōng ( 忠 ) conscientiousness we must always make our best effort
Shù ( 恕 ) consideration Negative Analects 12.2 Chung-kung asked about benevolence. The Master said, … ‘Do not impose upon others what you do not wish for yourself’
Shù ( 恕 ) consideration Positive Analects 6.28 As for Goodness – you yourself desire rank and standing. Then help others to get rank and standing. You want to turn your own merits to account; then help others to turn theirs to account – in fact the ability to take one’s own feelings as a guide – that is the sort of thing that lies in the direction of Goodness
Shù ( 恕 ) The method of the Measuring Square By knowing what you want you know what others want Analects 7.28 Is benevolence really far away? No sooner do I desire it than it is here.
The Gentleman’s Education Strive to become a Gentleman ( jūnzǐ, 君子 ) Depends upon character not birth Is achieved by training in the lǐ This will lead to having the proper rén
Yì ( 義 ) Righteousness Do what ought to be done because it ought to be done Analects 4.16 The gentleman understands righteousness; the small man understands profit.
Mìng ( 命 ) Destiny In doing what ought to be done one may incur loss The Gentleman realises this and ‘knows Destiny’ Analects 20.3 He who does not understand Destiny cannot be a gentleman.
Dé ( 德 ) Moral Power The Gentleman possess a power to influence others by his example
Human Nature Is Man basically Good, or Bad? Mencius says ‘Good’
Human Nature Mèngzĭ, 2a.6 My reason for saying that no man is devoid of a heart sensitive to the suffering of others is this. Suppose a man were, all of a sudden, to see a young child on the verge of falling into a well. He would certainly be moved to compassion, … From this it can be seen that whoever is devoid of the heart of compassion is not human, whoever is devoid of the heart of shame is not human, whoever is devoid of the heart of courtesy and modesty is not human, and whoever is devoid of the heart of right and wrong is not human. The heart of compassion is the germ of benevolence [rén]; the heart of shame, of dutifulness [yì]; the heart of courtesy and modesty, of observance of the rites [lǐ]; the heart of right and wrong, of wisdom [zhi]. Man has these four germs just as he has four limbs. For a man possessing these four germs to deny his own potentialities is for him to cripple himself.
Human Nature Is Man basically Good, or Bad? Mencius says ‘Good’ Xúnzǐ ( 荀子 ) says ‘Bad’
Human Nature Xúnzǐ If human nature were good, we could dispense with the sage kings and desist from the practice of ritual and rightness. Since human nature is evil, we must elevate the sages and esteem ritual and rightness. Therefore the straightening board was created because of warped wood, and the plumb line came into being because of things tat are not straight. Rulers are established and ritual and rightness are illuminated because the nature is evil. From this perspective it is clear that human nature is evil and that goodness is the result of conscious activity.
Human Nature Is Man basically Good, or Bad? Mencius says ‘Good’ Xúnzǐ ( 荀子 ) says ‘Bad’ Resolved: Man is good. Zhu Xi ( 朱熹 ) ( AD)
Nature of Government The proper task of a gentleman is government By his example and his D é he can create harmony He should only take office in states where the Dào is respected
Nature of Government A Ruler must rule lightly By his example and his D é he can create harmony Analects If your desire is for good, the people will be good. The moral character of the ruler is the wind; the moral character of those beneath him is the grass. When the wind blows, the grass bends.
Nature of Government A Ruler must rule lightly By his example and his D é he can create harmony He need hardly act at all Analects 2.1 He who governs by means of his virtue is, to use an analogy, like the pole-star: it remains in its place while all the lesser stars do homage to it
Nature of Government A Ruler must rule lightly By his example and his D é he can create harmony He need hardly act at all But this does require that he first rectify names Analects 2.3 The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."
Nature of Government What a ruler should aim at The welfare of the people ( 民, min) Analects 12.7 Tzu-Kung asked about the government. The Master said, ‘Give them enough food, give them enough arms, and the common people will have trust in you
Nature of Government What a ruler should aim at The welfare of the people ( 民, min) They are not capable of much moral education Analects 8.9 The common people can be made to follow the path but not to understand it
Nature of Government Watch out, ruler! An abusive ruler is no ruler at all, and may be overthrown He can keep rule only as long as he has the ‘Mandate of Heaven’ ( 天命, Tiānmìng) Mencius 1B8 "One who robs rén you call a ‘robber;’ one who wrecks yì you call a ‘wrecker;’ and one who robs and wrecks you call an ‘outlaw.’ I have heard that [Wu] punished the outlaw Zhou - I have not heard that he murdered his lord.