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Chapter 13 Addictive Behavior CHAPTER OUTLINE AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Addictive Behavior CHAPTER OUTLINE AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Addictive Behavior CHAPTER OUTLINE AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

2 Key Term Addiction: Compulsive and uncontrollable behavior(s) or use of substance(s) AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

3 Addictive Behaviors Almost anything can be addictive: Work, shopping, television, the Internet, computer games, exercise, food, drugs Other addictions include Gambling, pornography, sex, people, places AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

4 Addictive Behaviors The most serious type is chemical dependency on drugs; examples include Socially “accepted” substances Coffee, tobacco, alcohol Illegal substances Cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA, ecstasy, heroin, marijuana Others Prescription drugs AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

5 Risk Factors for Addiction The behavior is reinforced The addiction is an attempt to meet a basic need Stress Peer pressure Acceptance within a value system AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

6 Risk Factors for Addiction Pain from serious illness Pressure to perform or succeed Low self-esteem Genetic susceptibility Society accepts addictive behaviors AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

7 What Is a Drug? A drug is any substance that alters the user’s ability to function Over-the-counter drugs Prescription medications Illegal substances Many drugs lead to physical and psychological dependence AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

8 Drugs Any drug can be misused or abused Misuse: the intentional or inappropriate use of over-the-counter or prescribed medications Abuse: the intentional or inappropriate use of a drug resulting in physical, emotional, financial, intellectual, or social consequences The body often develops tolerance to drugs, requiring a higher dose with subsequent use AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

9 The Influence of Drug Abuse More than 50% of adolescent suicides are drug-related Drug abuse can open the gate to other illegal activities 70% of federal inmates and 80% of state inmates have abused drugs 60% of the world’s production of illegal drugs is consumed in the U.S. Americans spend more than $65 billion each year on illegal drugs (more than for all U.S. crops) AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

10 Marijuana Most widely used illegal drug in the U.S. Low doses yield a sedative effect Larger doses produce physical and psychic changes Short-term effects include Tachycardia, difficulty in concentration, decreased coordination, memory impairment, confusion, increased heart attack risk Long-term effects include The amotivational syndrome, brain atrophy, brain damage, immune system dysfunction, chronic bronchitis, lung cancer, sterility, impotence AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

11 Critical Thinking The legalization of marijuana for medical purposes is being heatedly debated across the United States. Do you think this decision should rest with the government, medical personnel, or the individuals themselves? AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

12 Cocaine More than 5.7 million Americans use cocaine 25% of first time users will become addicted Addiction becomes a lifetime nightmare Popularity based on the almost immediate feeling of euphoria AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

13 Cocaine Initial high Alleviates fatigue, raises energy, decreases need for food and sleep But increases risk of sudden death Then comes the “crash” Physiological and psychological depression leaving a desire for additional drug Long-term consequences include Digestive disorders, malnutrition, insomnia, anxiety, cocaine psychosis (“coke bugs”), tremors, seizures, strokes, cardiac arrhytmias AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

14 Methamphetamine Fastest growing drug problem in the U.S. A central nervous system stimulant Primary effect Produces a feeling of well-being and increased motor activity But decreases appetite, fatigue, and sleep Chronic users experience Inflammation of the heart lining, schizophrenia-like mental disorder, and brain cell damage Users are frequently involved in violent crime, homicide, and suicide AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

15 MDMA (Ecstasy) Most common club drug in the U.S. A stimulant and hallucinogenic drug Promoted as a drug that increases energy, pleasure, and self-confidence Users may experience Faintness, blurred vision, chills, sweating, nausea, muscle tension, and teeth-grinding Long-term effects include Confusion, depression, sleep disorders, anxiety, aggression, paranoia, and verbal and visual memory impairment AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

16 Heroin A sedative drug synthesized from morphine (opium) An extremely addictive and tolerance-developing drug Induces an almost immediate state of euphoria An overdose can cause convulsions, coma, and death AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

17 Heroin Short-term use symptoms include Bone and muscle pains, muscle spasms and cramps, runny nose and eyes, drowsiness, slurred speech, nausea, and violent yawning Long-term symptoms include Hallucinations; nightmares; constipation; sexual difficulties; and increased risk for lung, liver, and cardiovascular disease SIDS is more frequently seen in children born to addicted mothers AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

18 Alcohol Alcohol abuse is one of the most significant health- related drug problems in the U.S. Alcohol intake impedes peripheral vision, impairs the ability to see and hear, decreases reaction time, hinders concentration and motor performance, and causes impaired judgment of distance and speed of moving objects Alcohol use also lessens fear, increases risk-taking behaviors, stimulates urination, and induces sleep AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

19 13.1 Long-Term Risks Associated with Alcohol Abuse

20 13.2 Average Number of Drinks by College Students per Week by GPA

21 College Students and Alcohol Misuse 44% of students engage in binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row) Alcohol is a factor in 28% of all college dropouts 25% of students report academic problems as a result of alcohol misuse 29% of students admit driving while intoxicated More than 50% of students participate in games that involve heavy drinking AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

22 The Impact of Binge Drinking

23 Key Term Synergistic action: The effect of mixing two or more drugs, which can be much greater than the drugs acting by themselves AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

24 Alcohol and Dating Decide ahead of time what action to take if your date puts you in an uncomfortable situation Most people think they are in control of their drinking habits and do not realize they have a problem until they become alcoholics

25 How to Cut Down on Drinking Determine that you want to cut down on drinking Set reasonable limits Learn to say no politely and firmly Drink slowly Dilute your drinks Do not drink on your own AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

26 Treatment of Addiction Recognize that there is a problem Recovery almost always requires professional help Consult a physician, counseling center, or local mental health clinic Contact the National Center for Substance Abuse Treatment at HELP for 24-hour substance abuse treatment centers in your area Successful treatment includes psychotherapy, medical care, and behavior modification AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

27 Cigarette Smoking Cigarette smoking became popular in the mid 1800s Harmful effects of cigarette smoking became known in the 1960s More than 1,200 toxic chemicals have been found in tobacco smoke Tar contains about 60 chemical compounds that are proven carcinogens AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

28 Key Terms Nicotine: Addictive compound found in tobacco leaves Tar: Chemical compound that forms during the burning of tobacco leaves AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

29 Morbidity & Mortality The World Health Organization estimates that 10% of the 6 billion people presently living will die from smoking-related illnesses Cigarettes kill 26 times as many people as all illegal drugs combined (about 435,000/year) Cigarette smoking is the single largest preventable cause of illness and premature death in the U.S. AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

30 Morbidity & Mortality The most common carcinogenic exposure in the workplace is cigarette smoke Secondhand smoke causes an estimated 35,000 to 40,000 yearly deaths from heart disease in nonsmokers About 3,000 people die each year from lung cancer because of secondhand smoke Pipe and cigar smoking and chewing tobacco also increase the mortality rates from heart disease and lung, lip, mouth, and larynx cancer AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

31 Every day, 1,200 Americans die from smoking 13.4 The Health Effects of Smoking

32 Smoking-Related Problems Causes heart disease, cancer, stroke, aortic aneurysm, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and peptic ulcers On average, each cigarette shortens life expectancy by 7 minutes 87% of lung cancer and 30% of all cancers are caused by smoking Smoking affects the cardiovascular system by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, susceptibility to atherosclerosis, blood clots, coronary artery spasm, cardiac arrhythmia, and arteriosclerotic peripheral vascular disease AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

33 Smoking-Related Problems As far as the extra load on the heart is concerned, smoking one pack of cigarettes per day is the equivalent of carrying between 50 and 75 pounds of excess body fat Smoking is the most prevalent cause of injury and death from fire Cigarette smoke contains carbon monoxide which reduces the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity Carbon monoxide and nicotine can cause damage to the arterial wall, enhancing atherosclerosis Smoking causes increased adhesiveness and clustering of platelets, increasing blood thickness that may precipitate a heart attack AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

34 13.3 A Normal and a Diseased Alveoli

35 Critical Thinking Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of premature illness and death in the United States. Do you think the government should outlaw the use of tobacco in all forms? Or does the individual have the right to engage in self-destructive behavior? AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

36 Economic Impact Smokers use the health care system twice as much as nonsmokers A smoking employee costs an employer up to an additional $4,611 annually AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

37 Critical Thinking You are in a designated nonsmoking area and the person next to you lights up a cigarette. What can you say to this person to protect your right to clean air? AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

38 Smokeless Tobacco Use has increased during the last 15 years Leads to health problems Gingivitis and periodontitis Four times greater risk of oral cancer Increased cavities, sore gums, bad breath, and stained teeth Diminishes smell and taste Increases heart rate and blood pressure Just as addictive as cigarette smoking AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

39 Smoking Cessation Nicotine is perhaps the most addictive drug known to humans 75 to 90% of smokers would like to quit Most important factor in quitting is sincere desire to do so 20% of smokers who try to quit succeed the first time More than 91% of successful ex-smokers have been able to quit on their own AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

40 Steps to Smoking Cessation 1. Decide positively that you want to quit 2. Initiate a personal diet and exercise program 3. Decide on the approach you will use to stop smoking Cold turkey Cutting down gradually 4. Keep a daily log of your smoking habit for a few days 5. Set the target date for quitting 6. Stock up on low-calorie foods 7. Quit! AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

41 Life after Cigarettes Withdrawal symptoms should be expected Physiological addiction is broken in about 3 days following the last cigarette Psychological addiction takes longer, possibly years to break Benefits begin right after smoking cessation AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

42 Following Smoking Cessation Risk for illness starts to decrease the moment you stop smoking Sore throats, sores in the mouth, hoarseness, cigarette cough, and risk for peptic ulcers decrease Circulation to the hands and feet improve Gastrointestinal, kidney, and bladder functions improve Everything tastes and smells better You will have more energy You gain a sense of freedom, pride, and well-being AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

43 Critical Thinking If you ever smoked or now smoke cigarettes, discuss your perceptions of how others accepted your behavior. If you smoked and have quit, how did you accomplish the task, and has it helped in how you are viewed by others? If you never smoked, how do perceive smokers? AddictionRisk Factors for Addiction Drugs and Dependence AlcoholTreatment of Addiction Tobacco Use

44 End of Chapter


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