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The Progressive Reform Era (1890–1920)

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1 The Progressive Reform Era (1890–1920)
America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 11 The Progressive Reform Era (1890–1920) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

2 The Progressive Era Rapid industrialization, immigration, and urbanization in the late 1800s led to national growth and prosperity. The rapid growth also caused poverty, unemployment, poor working conditions and political corruption.

3 Historians call the period from about 1890–1920 the Progressive Era.
Progressives believed that political action and government, not private charities, would bring about progress in society. Historians call the period from about 1890–1920 the Progressive Era.

4 The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs
Progressives were not a single unified movement. They fell into four categories: social, moral, economic, and political.

5 The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs
Common basic beliefs were: Government should be more accountable to its citizens. Government should curb the power and influence of the wealthy. In Section I GRA.

6 The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs
Government should be given more power so that it could become more active in improving lives. Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt.

7 Igniting Reform: Writers and Their New Ideas
The ideas of many writers and journalists influenced public opinion about how to reform society. Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, and Ida Tarbell were respected writers and muckrakers.

8 Igniting Reform: Writers and Their New Ideas
Theodore Roosevelt called the journalists “muckrakers.” Journalists investigated and publicized conditions in certain industries, slums, tenement houses, and sweat shops.

9 Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lived (1890)

10 Tenement Slum Living

11 Tenement Slum Living

12 Struggling Immigrant Families

13 Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”

14 Hester Street – Jewish Section

15 TR’/Muckraker affects
Urged legislation that addressed abuses by the meatpacking industries. Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle opened the public’s eyes to the atrocities that were going on in the unregulated meat industry. Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle opened the public’s eyes to the atrocities that were going on in the unregulated meat industry. 1906 The Pure Food and Drug Act was passed. The Meat Inspection Act--gave Federal officials the right to inspect all operations within the meat packing industry.

16 TR’/Muckraker affects
The Meat Inspection Act gave the government the right to inspect plants . 1906 The Pure Food and Drug Act was passed

17 The Pressure to Expand—Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 1 Which of the following was a goal of the Progressives? (A) Government should be more accountable to its citizens. (B) Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. (C) Government should be given expanded powers so that it can become more active in improving the lives of its citizens. (D) All of the above

18 The Pressure to Expand—Assessment
Which of the following was a goal of the Progressives? (A) Government should be more accountable to its citizens. (B) Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. (C) Government should be given expanded powers so that it can become more active in improving the lives of its citizens. (D) All of the above

19 An Expanded Role for Government
Reformers opposed the influence of political bosses. Reformers made efforts to take over city utilities such as water, gas, and electricity. City-supported welfare services such as public baths, parks, work-relief programs, playgrounds, kindergartens, and lodging houses for the homeless.

20 Analyze: Political Cartoons: Business and Government Corruption
Political Cartoon: Business and Government Corruption ANALYZE Analyze: Political Cartoons: Business and Government Corruption

21 State Reforms Initiative: a process in which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters’ signatures on a petition.

22 State Reforms Referendum: a process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by the legislature.

23 State Reforms Recall: procedure permits voters to remove public officials from office before the next election.

24 Transparency: City Commission

25 Federal Level: 17th Amendment
Allowing the direct election of senators by the people instead of state legislatures. Takes power away from political machines. (Giving it to the people.)

26 Reforms in the Workplace
1907-2/3rds of states abolish child labor. (under 14) Minimum wage laws. Worker safety laws improve. Muller v. Oregon limited work hours for women

27 Child labor pics

28 Child labor pics

29 Chart: Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed 1870-1930

30 Teddy Roosevelt 26th President of the United States
President McKinley won the election of reelection. Shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz, who was against all government. The irony of this is that he put TR in control who would further the Governments role in the life of the average American. TR Became the youngest president of the US history. Brought new excitement and power to the Presidency. Not a log cabin President, came from a wealthy family, but did struggled against ill health. As a child he suffered from asthma and poor eyesight. All his life he felt he had to make up for his weakness as a child physically. In his triumph he became as advocate of the strenuous life. 1884--mother and wife die on the same day. Hero of the Spanish-American war--”Rough Rider” Republican Governor of NY in 1898. One of the most popular and controversial presidents ever. He greatly expanded presidential power while making the US the virtual guardian of the Western Hemisphere and a major force in European and Far Eastern affairs.

31 Rough Rider

32 Wild Game Hunter

33 Family Man

34 Teddy the “Trustbuster”
Trust are a combination of companies to gain control of an industry and reduce competition. Sherman Anti-Trust Act—outlawed illegal Trust. What is a “Trust”? TR felt that Roosevelt was not against all trust, and believed those that had honest businesses should be left alone. Similar to a monopoly in function--but it is not total control of a market, but it is close. A trust still can control the price and drive competitors out of business.

35 Teddy the “Trustbuster”
Roosevelt was not against all trust. “We draw the line against misconduct, not against wealth”--T.R. The American people supported the President, and many trust were taken to court. Some companies that merged could provide better services for the US people. Today we see many companies that provide much cheaper products because of the sheer buying power that a company like Wal-Mart has. TR did not think all trust were bad just those who sought to gain wealth through taking advantage of the people. Northern Securities Company--J.P. Morgan, Rockefellers, big time money. Sent a chill through Wall Street. JP Morgan went to the White House to try to settle issue out of court--case goes to Supreme Court and they find it guilty under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the company is dissolved. This was the first of TR attacks on the big time Trust, he later attacks the oil, the beef, and tobacco trust. In his own mind TR made the distinction between “good” and “bad” trust. Bad ones should be broken up, good ones should be regulated. TR gets Congress to add the a New Department t o the cabinet, the Department of Commerce and Labor, the Bureau of Corporations was added within the department.

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38 Progressive Legislation—Assessment
What was the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act? (A) To require federal inspection of meat processing (B) To outlaw monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as price fixing (C) To authorize the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad rates To plan and develop irrigation projects

39 Progressive Legislation—Assessment
Chapter 18, Section 2 What was the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act? (A) To require federal inspection of meat processing (B) To outlaw monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as price fixing (C) To authorize the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad rates (D) To plan and develop irrigation projects

40 Not a dynamic politician Never completely comfortable as President
VI. “A Tough Act to Follow”: The Presidency of William Howard Taft ( ) Wins The Election of 1908 Not a dynamic politician Never completely comfortable as President

41 Split within the Republican Party
VII. The Election of 1912 Split within the Republican Party Creation of the “Bull Moose” Party

42 The Republican Party & President William H. Taft

43 The Progressive Party & Former President Theodore Roosevelt
People should rise above their sectarian interests to promote the general good.

44 The Democratic Party & Governor Woodrow Wilson (NJ)

45 An Actual 1912 Ballot

46 The Anti- Third-Term Principle

47

48 Election Results

49 Sympathetic to small businessmen
VIII. Democratic Progressivism: The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson ( ) Sympathetic to small businessmen Could be a stubborn, son of a Preacher, had a high moral standard.

50 Wilson Administration
Regulated big business through the Clayton Antitrust Act. Set up the Federal Trade Commission--watch dog over US business.

51 Wilson opposed at first.
Women’s Suffrage Wilson opposed at first. Changed his mind during 2nd term--19th Amendment is passed giving women the right to vote.

52 Preparing the Way for Suffrage
Western States became the first state to grant women the right to vote. In 1872, in an act of civil disobedience, a suffrage leader, Susan B. Anthony, insisted on voting in Rochester, New York. She was arrested for this act. Preparing the Way for Suffrage The movement eventually split into two groups: The National Woman Suffrage Association fought for a constitutional amendment for suffrage. The American Woman Suffrage Association worked to win voting rights on the state level.

53 Transparency: Political Cartoons: Women’s Suffrage

54 In 1918, Congress formally proposed the suffrage amendment.
Victory for Suffrage In 1918, Congress formally proposed the suffrage amendment. After the amendment was proposed the ratification battle began.

55 “The Perfect 36” In August 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state necessary to ratify the suffrage amendment. The 19th Amendment, granting women the right to vote, was the last major reform of the Progressive Era.

56 Anne Dallas Dudley, a national and state leader in the woman suffrage movement,
Anne Dallas Dudley, a national and state leader in the woman suffrage movement, was the daughter of a prominent Nashville family. She received her education at Ward Seminary and attended Price's College in Nashville. She married Guilford Dudley, one of the founders of the Life and Casualty Insurance Company in Nashville, and they maintained a country estate in west Nashville. After joining a local suffrage association in 1911, she was elected in 1915 as the president of the Tennessee Equal Suffrage Association and served until 1917, when she was elected third vice-president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). The circles in which Anne Dallas Dudley moved frowned upon the idea of women voting, yet she became a tireless worker, campaigning throughout the state, organizing suffrage leagues, and speaking across the United States. Under her leadership, suffrage became more acceptable, and more women joined the movement. Abby Milton of Chattanooga and Catherine Kenny of Nashville worked closely with Dudley in organizing the suffrage movement in Tennessee. Dudley's two children were frequently photographed as they led suffrage parades with their mother across Nashville, and a photograph of Dudley reading with her two children was widely circulated with suffrage publicity materials. These photographs were a deliberate effort by the suffragists to counteract negative stereotypes of suffragists as mannish, childish radicals who were attempting to destroy the American family. Dudley addressed congressional committees and spoke to national audiences urging passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Adept at handling anti-suffrage arguments, she responded to criticism that equated male suffrage with military service by pointing out that "women bear armies." In 1920 Dudley attended the Democratic national convention in San Francisco as the first woman delegate-at-large. On her way to the podium to make a seconding speech, the band spontaneously struck up the familiar tune, "Oh, You Beautiful Doll." In August of that same year Dudley successfully worked to achieve the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment by the Tennessee General Assembly and thereby add the amendment to the U.S. Constitution. She continued her political involvement through the fall of 1920 as a volunteer in Governor Albert H. Roberts's unsuccessful reelection bid. Though she was never active in the newly created League of Women Voters, she helped organize the Woman's Civic League of Nashville to assist elected officials in a needed "municipal house-cleaning." More than thirty-five years before the passage of metropolitan government in Nashville, this group fought for an end to overlapping city efforts and public education on health issues. In the 1930s Dudley served as president of the Maternal Welfare Organization of Tennessee. This group brought birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger to Nashville in 1938 to increase public awareness of birth control. Dudley's likeness appears in the painting Pride of Tennessee, which hangs in the Capitol. She is buried at Mt. Olivet Cemetery in Nashville.

57 “Perfect 36” Harry Burn: cast the deciding vote on the 19th Amendment. (Letter From Mother) Governor Albert Roberts: signed the 19th Amendment Ratification into law, granting the right to vote for women.

58 Graph: Passages of Women’s Suffrage

59 The Charity Organization Movement
Kept detailed files on people who received their help Decided who was worthy of help Wanted immigrants to adopt American, middle-class standards. Sought to apply the gospel teachings of charity and justice to society’s problems. Moved into poor communities Their settlement houses served as community centers and social service agencies. Hull House, a model settlement house in Chicago, offered cultural events, classes, childcare, employment assistance, and health-care clinics. The Charity Organization Movement The Social Gospel Movement The Settlement Movement Led by Jane Addams Helping the Needy Chapter 15, Section 4

60 Local Union Catechism (Social Gospel Movement example)
Q. What is the Women’s Christian Temperance Union? A. It is an organization of Christian women banded together for the protection of the hoe, the abolition o the liquor traffic and the triumph of Christ’s golden rule in custom and law. Q. How can a women become a member of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union? A. By signing the pledge and paying yearly dues. Q. What is the pledge? A. Pledge--“I hereby solemnly promise, God helping me, to abstain from all distilled, fermented, and malt liquors, including wine, beer, and cider, and to employ all proper means to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment.” Q. What are the membership dues? A. One dollar per year. Q. To whom should dues be paid? A. To the treasurer of the local union... --Handbook for the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, 1920

61 Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 1
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Answer C A Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 1


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