The Progressive Era Rapid industrialization, immigration, and urbanization in the late 1800s led to national growth and prosperity. The rapid growth also caused poverty, unemployment, poor working conditions and political corruption.
The Progressive Era Progressives believed that political action and government, not private charities, would bring about progress in society. Historians call the period from about 1890–1920 the Progressive Era.
The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs Progressives were not a single unified movement. They fell into four categories: social, moral, economic, and political.
The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs Common basic beliefs were: 1.Government should be more accountable to its citizens. 2.Government should curb the power and influence of the wealthy.
The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs 3.Government should be given more power so that it could become more active in improving lives. 4.Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt.
Igniting Reform: Writers and Their New Ideas The ideas of many writers and journalists influenced public opinion about how to reform society.
Igniting Reform: Writers and Their New Ideas Theodore Roosevelt called the journalists “muckrakers.”
Jacob Riis: How the Other Half Lived (1890) Jacob Riis
Tenement Slum Living
Struggling Immigrant Families
Mulberry Street – “Little Italy”
Hester Street – Jewish Section
TR’/Muckraker affects Urged legislation that addressed abuses by the meatpacking industries. Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle opened the public’s eyes to the atrocities that were going on in the unregulated meat industry.
TR’/Muckraker affects The Meat Inspection Act gave the government the right to inspect plants The Pure Food and Drug Act was passed
The Pressure to Expand— Assessment Which of the following was a goal of the Progressives? (A)Government should be more accountable to its citizens. (B)Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. (C)Government should be given expanded powers so that it can become more active in improving the lives of its citizens. (D)All of the above Chapter 18, Section 1
The Pressure to Expand— Assessment Which of the following was a goal of the Progressives? (A)Government should be more accountable to its citizens. (B)Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. (C)Government should be given expanded powers so that it can become more active in improving the lives of its citizens. (D)All of the above
An Expanded Role for Government Reformers opposed the influence of political bosses. Reformers made efforts to take over city utilities such as water, gas, and electricity.
Political Cartoon: Business and Government Corruption Analyze: Political Cartoons: Business and Government Corruption ANALYZE
State Reforms Initiative : a process in which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters’ signatures on a petition.
State Reforms Referendum: a process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by the legislature.
State Reforms Recall : procedure permits voters to remove public officials from office before the next election.
City Commission Transparency: City Commission TRANSPARENCY
Federal Level: 17 th Amendment Allowing the direct election of senators by the people instead of state legislatures. Takes power away from political machines. (Giving it to the people.)
Reforms in the Workplace /3rds of states abolish child labor. (under 14) Minimum wage laws. Worker safety laws improve. Muller v. Oregon limited work hours for women
Child labor pics
Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed, Chart: Children Enrolled in Public Schools and Employed CHART
Teddy Roosevelt 26th President of the United States
Wild Game Hunter
Teddy the “Trustbuster” Trust are a combination of companies to gain control of an industry and reduce competition. Sherman Anti-Trust Act— outlawed illegal Trust.
Teddy the “Trustbuster” Roosevelt was not against all trust.Roosevelt was not against all trust. “We draw the line against misconduct, not against wealth”- -T.R.“We draw the line against misconduct, not against wealth”- -T.R.
Progressive Legislation— Assessment What was the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act? (A)To require federal inspection of meat processing (B)To outlaw monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as price fixing (C)To authorize the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad rates (D)To plan and develop irrigation projects
Progressive Legislation— Assessment What was the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act? (A)To require federal inspection of meat processing (B)To outlaw monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as price fixing (C)To authorize the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad rates (D)To plan and develop irrigation projects Chapter 18, Section 2
VI. “A Tough Act to Follow”: The Presidency of William Howard Taft ( ) Wins The Election of 1908 Not a dynamic politician Never completely comfortable as President
VII. The Election of 1912 Split within the Republican Party Creation of the “Bull Moose” Party
The Republican Party & President William H. Taft
The Progressive Party & Former President Theodore Roosevelt People should rise above their sectarian interests to promote the general good.
The Democratic Party & Governor Woodrow Wilson (NJ)
An Actual 1912 Ballot
The Anti- Third- Term Principle
VIII. Democratic Progressivism: The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson ( ) Sympathetic to small businessmen Could be a stubborn, son of a Preacher, had a high moral standard.
Wilson Administration Regulated big business through the Clayton Antitrust Act. Set up the Federal Trade Commission--watch dog over US business.
Women’s Suffrage Wilson opposed at first. Changed his mind during 2nd term--19th Amendment is passed giving women the right to vote.
Preparing the Way for Suffrage Western States became the first state to grant women the right to vote. In 1872, in an act of civil disobedience, a suffrage leader, Susan B. Anthony, insisted on voting in Rochester, New York. She was arrested for this act.
Political Cartoons: Women’s Suffrage Transparency: Political Cartoons: Women’s Suffrage
Victory for Suffrage In 1918, Congress formally proposed the suffrage amendment. After the amendment was proposed the ratification battle began.
“The Perfect 36” In August 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state necessary to ratify the suffrage amendment. The 19 th Amendment, granting women the right to vote, was the last major reform of the Progressive Era.
Anne Dallas Dudley, a national and state leader in the woman suffrage movement,
“Perfect 36” Harry Burn: cast the deciding vote on the 19 th Amendment. (Letter From Mother) Governor Albert Roberts: signed the 19 th Amendment Ratification into law, granting the right to vote for women.
Passages of Women’s Suffrage Graph: Passages of Women’s Suffrage GRAPH
Helping the Needy Chapter 15, Section 4 Kept detailed files on people who received their help Decided who was worthy of help Wanted immigrants to adopt American, middle-class standards. Sought to apply the gospel teachings of charity and justice to society’s problems. Moved into poor communities Their settlement houses served as community centers and social service agencies. Hull House, a model settlement house in Chicago, offered cultural events, classes, childcare, employment assistance, and health-care clinics. The Charity Organization Movement The Social Gospel Movement The Settlement Movement Led by Jane Addams
Local Union Catechism (Social Gospel Movement example) Q. What is the Women’s Christian Temperance Union? A. It is an organization of Christian women banded together for the protection of the hoe, the abolition o the liquor traffic and the triumph of Christ’s golden rule in custom and law. Q. How can a women become a member of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union? A. By signing the pledge and paying yearly dues. Q. What is the pledge? A. Pledge--“I hereby solemnly promise, God helping me, to abstain from all distilled, fermented, and malt liquors, including wine, beer, and cider, and to employ all proper means to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment.” Q. What are the membership dues? A. One dollar per year. Q. To whom should dues be paid? A. To the treasurer of the local union... --Handbook for the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, 1920