Presentation on theme: "The Girondins: Moderate liberals, opposed to mob violence and the execution of the King."— Presentation transcript:
The Girondins: Moderate liberals, opposed to mob violence and the execution of the King
THE GIRONDINS: about 200/740 deputies in the Convention Most were originally members of the Jacobin Club, moderates, independents They represented bourgeois commercial interests in the provinces. They were for free trade, reluctant to prosecute hoarders and speculators, and opposed to wartime price controls. They opposed rule from Paris, the September massacres, the Terror, Louis’ execution, but were pro-war and pro republican.
Jacques-Pierre Brissot 1754-93 Son of a restaurateur,, he travelled, visiting Britain and the United States. Joined the Jacobin Club, elected to the Legislative Assembly and Convention. Leader of the Girondin faction of country deputies; pro war; for decentralised government; against the Terror and Louis’s execution.
The Marquis de Condorcet 1743-1794 Scientist, enlightened thinker, passionate for the public good. Member of the Society of Thirty. Became a republican following the flight to Varennes, but opposed Louis’ execution. Elected to the Legislative Assembly and the Convention. Died in prison 1794.
Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud 1753-1793 Bourgeois lawyer from Bordeaux, joined the Bordeaux Jacobin Club. Elected to the Legislative Assembly and the Convention. Became a leading figure in Girondin faction and supported Brissot’s campaign for war. Hated by Marat and Robespierre; arrested June 2,1793 and executed.
Jean Marie Roland 1734-1793 Born into the bourgeoisie, he became Inspector of Manufactures under Louis XV1. After Louis’ arrest in 1792, he was made Minister for the Interior as support for war increased. He was arrested with other Girondins, escaped, but killed himself on November 10, 1793, on hearing that his wife had been guillotined with the other Girondin leaders.
Charles-Francois du Perier Dumouriez 1739-1823 Joined the army in the Seven Years War against Britain. In 1790, joined the Jacobin Club. Minister for foreign affairs in 1792. Became a leading supporter of the Girondins and war, becoming a General in the war against Austria. In April, 1793, he defected to the Austrians, was declared an outlaw and traitor to France.
The Fall of the Girondins The Jacobins and Girondins were united initially against the Feuillants, because both were opposed to constitutional monarchy and wanted a republic. They became enemies after August 10, 1792, when the Girondins opposed the violence of the sans-culottes and this deepened when Danton claimed responsibility for the September massacres. Marat’s call for more massacres deepened the divide. Brissot’s followers formed a majority in the Legislative Assembly, but Danton, Robespierre, Marat, Desmoulins - the radical Jacobins and Cordeliers drew their support from the Paris Commune and the Sections.
The Girondins thus became enemies of the sans- culottes and the Paris Commune. In the August elections to the new Assembly, (the Convention) elected by universal manhood suffrage, not one Girondin deputy was elected for Paris. The Girondins spoke out against popular violence, defining themselves as protectors of law and order. In February, 1793, they tabled a new constitution, defending individuals and property. Roland, particularly, spoke out against violent rule from Paris.
The trial and execution of Louis XV1 gave extra support to the Jacobins and Cordeliers and marked the beginning of the end for the Girondins. Their resistance to the King’s execution, their support of moderate liberal principles, the division in the Convention and the country, condemned them. As the dangers of war and civil war increased, they lost support in the Convention.
In June, 1793, they were expelled from the Convention, following Vergniaud’s call for the protection of the Convention against the radical faction. On 10 October, 1793, the new Committee of Public Safety declared its government ‘revolutionary until the peace,’a dictatorship under Robespierre. 31 Girondin deputies were arrested and executed on 31 October, 1793.