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Part 1: Russian Revolution and Communism Part 2: Fascism and National Socialism Theme: Alternatives to democracy and capitalism, and the role of terror.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1: Russian Revolution and Communism Part 2: Fascism and National Socialism Theme: Alternatives to democracy and capitalism, and the role of terror."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1: Russian Revolution and Communism Part 2: Fascism and National Socialism Theme: Alternatives to democracy and capitalism, and the role of terror and oppression to seize and maintain governmental power Lsn 11

2 Part 1: Russian Revolution and Communism Lsn 11

3 Marx and Engels: Where we left off with Lsn 6 In 1848, Marx and Engels wrote Manifesto of the Communist Party and aligned themselves with the communists who wanted to abolish private property and institute a radically egalitarian society (We’ll more fully discuss communism in Lesson 11)

4 Ivan III From 1462-1505, Ivan III (Ivan the Great) consolidated the Russian lands into a large and powerful state He recruited peasants with offers of freedom to settle in recently conquered lands and used them to further expand the empire (cossacks) Declared himself tsar which is the Russianized form of caesar –Claimed divine right and ruled both as head of state and head of the church Cossack on Horseback by Aleksander Orlowski

5 Ivan IV Reigned from 1533-1584 and was known as Ivan the Terrible Confiscated large estates and redistributed them among his supporters which became a new aristocracy called the oprichniki Oprichniki became Ivan’s private army and waged a terror campaign against suspected traitors When Ivan died in 1584, Russia plunged into chaos until the Romanov dynasty was established in 1613 and ruled until 1917

6 Nicholas II From 1894-1917, Nicholas II ruled by oppression and police control Suffered military defeats in the Russo- Japanese War (1904- 1905) which brought to a head simmering political and social discontent

7 Nicholas II In Jan 1905, soldiers killed 130 workers who were marching in protest to Nicholas’ rule –Sparked countrywide protests and forced some concessions Nicholas was further weakened by Russian setbacks in World War I in 1916 and 1917 –Disintegrating armies, mutinies, and food shortages provoked a series of demonstrations and strikes in Petrograd –Eventually troops mutinied –In 1917, Nicholas abdicated the throne, ending the Romanov dynasty

8 Russian Revolution: the Soviets “Soviets,” elected councils that had first originated as strike committees in 1905, surfaced all over Russia and wielded considerable power through control of factories and segments of the military The Petrograd soviet demanded Russia pursue an immediate peace in World War I To reinforce this movement, the Germans transported Vladimir Lenin and other revolutionaries back to Russia 1921 poster declares, “Long live the Communist Councils!”

9 Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Lenin’s older brother had been arrested and hanged for plotting to assassinate the tsar Lenin was in exile in Switzerland were he studied Marxism and wrote political pamphlets

10 Communist Manifesto: Where we left off with Lsn 7 All human history has been the history of struggle between social classes The future lay with the working classes because the laws of history dictated that capitalism would inexorably grind to a halt –Crises of overproduction, underconsumption, and diminishing profits would undermine capitalism’s foundation

11 Communist Manifesto: Where we left off with Lsn 7 At the same time, members of the constantly growing and thoroughly exploited proletariat would come to view the forcible overthrow of the existing system as their only alternative The socialist revolution would result in a “dictatorship of the proletariat,” which would abolish private property and destroy the capitalist order After the revolution, the state would wither away –Coercive institutions would disappear since there would no longer be any exploitation of the working class Socialism would lead to a fair, just, and egalitarian society infinitely more humane than capitalism

12 Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) In contrast to Marx, Lenin viewed the industrial working class as incapable of developing the proper revolutionary consciousness that would lead to effective political action The industrial proletariat would require the leadership of a well-organized and highly disciplined party to serve as the catalyst for revolution and the realization of a socialist society Lenin advocated transfer of legal authority to the soviets and uncompromising opposition to the war

13 Bolsheviks Lenin headed the Bolsheviks, the radical wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party The Bolsheviks capitalized on the government’s insistence on continuing the war, its inability to feed the population, and its refusal to undertake land reform Eventually the Bolsheviks gained control of the Petrograd soviet 1922 poster declaring “Starvation is strangling Russia”

14 Bolsheviks On Oct 24-25, 1917, the Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace and seized control in a virtually bloodless insurrection The Bolsheviks ended Russia’s involvement in World War I by signing the treaty of Brest-Litorsk with Germany on March 3, 1918 Picture, purportedly original, but actually a reenactment, of the Bolshevik storming of the Winter Palace

15 Civil War The Bolsheviks and their opponents fought a civil war from 1918 to 1920 Lenin established Moscow as his capital and initiated the “Red Terror” against the “Whites” –Secret police killed 200,000 of Lenin’s opponents –In July 1918, the Bolsheviks executed Nicholas II and his family to prevent them from being manipulated by the Whites The Romanov Family

16 Civil War Britain, France, Japan, and the US all sent troops and supplies to aid the Whites but the Whites were defeated in 1920 –10 million are estimated to have died in Russia’s civil war 1919 Bolshevik poster showing the three White generals as vicious dogs under the control of the US, France and Britain.

17 War Communism During the civil war, the Bolsheviks adopted a hasty and unplanned course of nationalization called “war communism” –The Bolshevik government assumed control or ownership of banks, industry, and privately held commercial property –Landed estates and the property of monasteries and churches became national property –Private trade was abolished

18 War Communism By 1920, industrial production had fallen to 1/10 its prewar level and agricultural output was down 50% –Workers went on strike, demobilized soldiers flooded the workforce, peasants rebelled –Lenin had to do something 1920 Bolshevik poster entitled “The Last Battle” shows a Red Army soldier knocking a capitalist businessman off the world.

19 New Economic Policy Lenin realized he needed to win back the workers so he radically reversed war communism, implementing the “New Economic Policy” in 1921 Temporarily restored the market economy and some private enterprise –However, Lenin died in 1924 before the plan could get a decent chance to work A struggle for power ensued and Joseph Stalin emerged in control in 1928 Lenin’s body on display in Moscow

20 Five Year Plan Stalin replaced Lenin’s New Economic Plan with his first Five-Year Plan in 1929 –Designed to transform the Soviet Union from a predominantly agricultural country to a leading industrial power –Set targets for increased productivity in all spheres of the economy, especially heavy industry, at the expense of consumer goods –Expropriated privately owned land to create collective or cooperate farm units whose profits were shared by farmers Even though consumer goods were almost non-existent, full employment in the midst of Global Depression made a centrally planned economy appear a viable alternative to some –Still there was resistance

21 The Great Purge Stalin consolidated power by inciting a civil war within his own party to remove opposition –Many peasants resisted the Five Year Plan’s collectivization of the land Between 1935 and 1938 he removed all people suspected of opposition from their positions of authority –By 1939, 8 million Soviet citizens were in labor camps and 3 million were dead Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)

22 Soviet Labor Camp in Siberia

23 Part 2: Fascism and National Socialism Lsn 11

24 Fascism Fascism was a reaction against both liberal democracy and the spread of socialism and communism In fascism, the state was primary and individuals were subordinate to the service of the state Emphasized a belligerent form of nationalism (chauvinism) and fear of foreigners (xenophobia) Maintained large and expensive military establishments, tried to organize much of public life along military lines, and showed a fondness for uniforms, parades, and monumental architecture

25 Fascism Political and economic frustrations created opportunities for fascism Popular in many European countries, Japan, China, South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, and several Arab nations Only in Italy and Germany did fascism overthrow a parliamentary system Common elements –Veneration of the state –Devotion to a strong leader –Ultranationalism –Ethnocentrism –Militarism

26 Italy after World War I The conditions were right for fascism to take hold –Weak political leadership and ineffective government –Economic turmoil –Social discontent –Growing fear of socialism –Disappointment over Italy’s limited territorial gains from the Treaty of Versailles

27 Benito Mussolini Began as a socialist but came to think that World War I marked a turning point for Italy and something else was needed By 1921, had 35 fascists elected to the Italian parliament Used armed squads known as Blackshirts to threaten socialists Mussolini surrounded by supporters

28 Benito Mussolini On Oct 28, 1922, Mussolini’s followers marched on Rome and the next day the King asked Mussolini to become Prime Minister and form a new government By 1926, Mussolini had seized total power as dictator and became Il Duce (“the leader”)

29 The Fascist State Mussolini –Eliminated all other political parties –Curbed freedom of the press –Outlawed free speech and association –Crushed labor unions and prohibited strikes –Allied himself with business and landlord interests –Labeled Jews unpatriotic and banned them from government employment Mussolini may have done many brutal and tyrannical things; he may have destroyed human freedom in Italy; he may have murdered and tortured citizens whose only crime was to oppose Mussolini; but one had to admit one thing about the Dictator: he “made the trains run on time.” –Ashley Montagu and Edward Darling

30 Mussolini and Hitler Mussolini became friends with Adolf Hitler and in 1936 declared world history would revolve around a Rome-Berlin axis In May 1939, Mussolini and Hitler signed a ten-year Pact of Steel

31 Germany after World War I Treaty of Versailles imposed a harsh peace on Germany –Red areas represent losses in German territory Hyperinflation wiped out the savings of the middle class Political infighting –In steps Hitler

32 Rise of Hitler From 1919 to 1923, Hitler began advancing the agenda of a Nazi Party which claimed: –Germany suffered unbearably in WWI from losses of territory, national shame, and casualties Enemies from within (Jews, Bolshevists, Jewish Bolshevists, and liberal republicans) helped bring Germany to defeat –The Treaty of Versailles is unfair and its enforcers are criminals Reparations are extortion Disarmament terms are unequal The new states, especially Poland, came from historic German soil A disarmed Germany is prey to her predatory neighbors (Poland, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Austria, France)

33 Rise of Hitler Through emotional speeches, Hitler began to build a following On Nov 19, 1923 he felt strong enough for a coup (the Beer Hall Putsch), but he was unsuccessful and was sentenced to five years in jail –He served nine months –While in prison he wrote Mein Kampf, his political manifesto

34 Rise of Hitler The world economic crisis of 1929 gave Hitler another chance to seize power –Unemployment : 1,320,000 in 1929 –3 million in 1930 –4.5 million in 1931 –Over 6 million in early 1932

35 Rise of Hitler In July 1932 the Nazi Party won 37.3% of the vote (230 parliamentary seats) and became the largest party in the Reichstag –The Communist Party also did well and fear of communism reinforced Hitler’s appeal –On Jan 30, 1933, Hitler became chancellor Dec 21, 1931

36 Rebirth of Germany Between Jan 1933 and July 1936, Hitler restored Germany’s prosperity, destroyed all opposition, recreated a spectacular army, and outmaneuvered the repressive treaty provisions When Paul von Hindenburg, the German President, died, Hitler combined the offices of President and Chancellor into Fuhrer and became both head of the government and head of state

37 Rebirth of Germany Hitler reinstituted conscription (after France doubled the length of its conscripts’ service) and in March 1936 was strong enough to reoccupy the Rhineland In June 1934, Hitler purged many of his paramilitary and the SS rose up to replace them

38 Germany under Hitler Declared a national state of emergency Eliminated all opposition Outlawed all other political parties and made the National Socialist Party (Nazis) the only legal party Replaced the federal structure with a highly centralized state Eliminated trade unions and collective bargaining; prohibited strikes and lockouts Took control of all police forces

39 Germany under Hitler Launched a campaign to increase births of “racially valuable” children –Awarded the Honor Cross of German Mother to mothers with more than four children –Instituted compulsory sterilization for those with “hereditarily determined sicknesses” Aborted the “hereditary ill” and racial aliens and euthanized others considered racially impure –Initiated the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 to systematically suppress the Jewish population (anti-Semitism)

40 Prelude to World War II We’ll come back to Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler when we discuss World War II in Lessons 19-21

41 Next Part 1: Map Quiz Part 2: Nationalism Part 3: International Organizations


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