Presentation on theme: "Preconditions for the Reformation Pope’s Unam Sanctam-Pope has authority over all earthly Kings Fr King Philip IV despised-Why? Advisor elected Pope-Clement."— Presentation transcript:
Preconditions for the Reformation Pope’s Unam Sanctam-Pope has authority over all earthly Kings Fr King Philip IV despised-Why? Advisor elected Pope-Clement V –Moved papacy to Avignon France-was there for 70 years –Under French influence Pope Gregory XI returned to Rome in 1377, but died –Rome elected own pope –French elected own pope Known as the Great Schism How does the Church appear?
John Wycliffe & Jan Hus Wycliffe-Scholar at Oxford attacked church practices –Wealth of the Church –Clergy immorality –Pope’s claim to supreme authority Argued the Bible was the only guide to faith & salvation Jan Hus-follower of John –Taught at Univ. of Prague –Burned at stake as a heretic Why do you think these ideas were opposed by the Church?
Printing Press & Education Gutenberg’s printing press –Allowed for Bibles to be mass produced –Allowed educated men to read more-became aware of Church doctrines Education-Renaissance –The lay city inhabitants were more educated –Understood politics and basic philosophic ideas –Lay people could preach on their own-had own Bible & could read it. How does this undermine the Church?
Martin Luther As a monk, he studied theology & received his doctorate Luther was troubled by his own sinfulness & the righteousness required by God for forgiveness that was taught by the Church Did Luther believe that Penance & good works were enough to gain salvation? Justification by faith alone –Believe & trust in Jesus Christ because his righteousness satisfies God.
The Reformation Luther didn’t want to break away-just reform His complaints of the Church –Indulgences/Purgatory What is Purgatory? –Church raising armies & declaring war –Church Practices not found in the Bible-clerical celibacy, sacraments –Infallibility of the Pope Oct. 31, 1517 he posted his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany
Europe’s Response Luther urged Germ. Princes to force reforms on the church to curtail its political & economic power in Germany He was called before Emperor Charles V to recant his beliefs-Diet of Worms Some German princes sided with Luther-Why? Still declared an outlaw Luther protected by a German Prince-Frederick the Wise He translated Erasmus’ Greek Bible into German “My conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot & will not recant anything…”
Political Reasons for Supporting the Reformation German princes argued that a church doesn’t need its huge landed estates-Why? Envied the property of the Church & its freedom from taxation What do you suppose the princes are trying to do? Way to assert their freedom from the Holy Roman Emperor Princes worked with converted preachers in bringing in new followers
Anabaptists Radical reformers who called for more extreme separation from the RCC. Wanted a more visible moral transformation-Why? Rejected infant baptism They physically separated themselves from society –Formed religious communities together –Ancestors of the Mennonites & Amish –Why would this be a problem? –Viewed as a threat by political authorities
Calvinists Started by John Calvin in Geneva Switzerland-1536 Believed in the idea of ‘predestination’ –God knows who is going to be saved –Guides those lives destined for salvation Calvinists gained control of Geneva Believed people were sinful by nature –Outlawed dancing, card playing, profane language –People liked the strictness of the new denomination Calvinism had more followers than Luther & greatly influenced Northern Europe Why do you suppose people like the strictness of Calvininsm?
England & the Reformation King Henry VIII actually was against Luther However, his wife didn’t produce a male heir Wanted to divorce her –Pope said no –How could he solve this? –Declared himself head of the English Church –Sir Thomas More didn’t agree and support-beheaded Henry VIII didn’t change the Church much –Maintained Catholic doctrine in a country full of Protestants
The Western Heritage 1995
Catholic Counter- Reformation Church needed an answer to the Protestant uprisings-found help in the Jesuits –Started by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534 –Very militaristic with an emphasis on self-discipline & obedience to the Church –Good Catholics were to deny themselves & submit to the higher Church authority –Combined with the traditional spirituality & mysticism of the Church Was a potent combination –Won back many Protestants in Austria, Bavaria & along the Rhine –Why do you think the Church supported this monastic order? How does geography play a role in the success of the Jesuits?
Church Answers the Reform Call Council of Trent –Made almost entirely of Ital.’s –Presided by the Pope Changes made: –Ban selling Indulgences –Made bishops live in their diocese –New rules for clergy-better dressed, educated, active, & strictly celibate No concessions made to Protestants on doctrines –Church said use of rich display, mystery & ceremonies would inspire faith & help believers achieve salvation What did the Church change?
Religious Wars Of Europe By 1550’s 1/3 of France was Protestant Calvinists Called the Huguenots, they worked to reform rest of Fr. –Catholic King Henry III not about to let that happen St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre –Rioters in Paris & around Fr. Killed 20,000 Protestants Calvinists knew they had to respond –Protestant Henry of Navarre became King Henry IV –He renounced Calvinism & returned to the Catholic fold –What did Henry IV have to give up to be King? Edict of Nantes-issued by Henry IV & proclaimed a truce Protestants would control cities they occupied
Germany & The Thirty Years’ War Peace of Augsburg in 1555 assured that each prince could choose the faith of his territory Was an uneasy peace-a patchwork of Catholic/Protestant territories in the HRE The new HR Emperor, Ferdinand II, revoked the freedoms in Protestant Bohemia –They responded by throwing his representatives out the castle window in Prague –As new HR Emperor-was going to crush the revolt
Bohemian Phase Emperor Ferdinand II called on supporters in Bavaria & Spain –Sent troops to defeat the Bohemians –Battle of White Mountain- Catholic troops routed the Protestants Bavarian Duke pressed the war on into rest of Germany hoping to gain lands What does this tell you about the motives of the Nobility?
Danish Period The Danish King was fearful that the Emperor was going to reCatholicize the whole HRE Why? Danes started fighting the Bavarian forces to maintain their Protestant faith –Also wanted to gain control of land along North & Baltic Seas –Was badly defeated by General Wallenstein who occupied Denmark
Swedish Phase Swedish King Adolphus had a united Lutheran Sweden –Found allies in Northern Germany to continue fighting –Won great victory at Breitenfeld –Swung war back to Protestant side Germans tired of fighting –Protestants compromise with Emperor –Swedes won’t accept-invested too much- what do they want? –French wanted to continue war- Secretly sent $ & supplies to Protestants –Why would they do this? What was the war being fought for now?
Swedish & French Phase French enter the war in 1635 (They’re Catholic) Along with Swedes they continue the fighting-IN GERMANY! Germans watch their lands being looted –1/3 of Germany is killed –Just as devastating as Black Death Treaty of Westphalia-1648 –Ended the war –Basically was a repeat of the Peace of Augsburg –Calvinists gained legal protection –Brandenbug-Prussia emerged powerful in N. Germany What is now the role of religion in European politics?