Presentation on theme: "Native Americans Control the West After the Civil War, federal soldiers left Texas to fight in the Eastern United States. Settlers in West Texas lived."— Presentation transcript:
Native Americans Control the West After the Civil War, federal soldiers left Texas to fight in the Eastern United States. Settlers in West Texas lived in constant fear of raids by Comanches, Kiowas and other Plain people. Army was unable to prevent raids because A. Soldiers were too few in number and often untrained B. Officers were Civil War Veterans with little experience in fighting Native Americans. C. Forts were built too far apart and too far to the west to provide defense. D. Military Campaigns (operations) against Native Americans had to be cancelled because there was not enough food for the soldiers and horses.
The Search for Peace- In 1867, federal agents representing the U.S. government and the chiefs of several Native American Natives met in present-day Kansas and signed a peace treaty. Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek Native Americans would live on reservations in the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) Government would provide food and supplies but the army would not be allowed on the reservations. Native Americans who signed the treaty agreed to stop making raids on Anglo American settlements. Government appointed federal agents to treat Native Americans well. Some agents were members of the Society of Friends, also known as Quakers.
The Peace Policy Fails Many Native American leaders did not sign the treaty. Claims made Government broke its promise Some agents for the Indian Territory cheated them and treated them badly. One half of the Comanches and many Kiowas refused to move to reservations Raids and war continued and became more serious
Agent for Native Americans and Native Americans who were against war Lawrie Tatum (Quaker): The agent in Indian Territory who worked to educate the Plains people in agriculture which would help them to earn a living. Kicking Bird and Striking Eagle: Kiowa chiefs who believed that Native Americans should accept Anglo Ways. Horseback: Comanche chief who led his people to a reservation.
Famous Native Americans who were against the treaty-500 Santanta: The most famous Kiowa chief that believed West Texas belonged to the Comanches and Kiowas. Was named “Orator of the Plains” because he spoke at the Medicine Lodge Creek peace conference. Quanah Parker: refused to sign the treaty. Son of Chief Peta Nocona and an Anglo American woman, Cynthia Ana Parker whco had been captured by the Comanches as a child. Spent 10 years trying to stop the spread of Anglo American settlements as they took over Texas Land. Victorio: War chief of the Apaches. Also opposed the Treaty.
The Peace Policy Ends-100 General William Tecumseh Sherman was sent to West Texas to investigate the stories that peaceful policies were not working. Kiowas attacked a wagon train traveling along Salt Creek. This is now called the Warren Wagon train Raid. Big Tree and Satank were arrested and taken to Jacksboro for a trial. Result of Warren Wagon Train Raid: Peace Policy was abandoned and Native American were forced onto reservations.
MacKenzie Leads the Early Texas Campaigns-200 Colonel Ranald S. MacKenzie, commander of the Fourth Cavalry Regiment, led the campaign against the Native Americans. Mackenzie defeated Large Comanche part in a battle fought near present-day Pampa Attacked native American villages in Northern Mexico. Comanche raids on West Texas declined and southern border became more peaceful.
Native Americans Depend on the Buffalo-300 Native Americans depended on the buffalo for much of their food and other necessities. Water bags were made from the buffalo’s paunch or stomach. Hoof, horns, and bones became ornaments, cups and other utensils. Sinews (tendons) and hair yielded necessities such as bowstrings, thread and rope. Buffalo hide became clothing, saddles, robes and covers for tepees. Dried manure, (buffalo chips) was used for fuel.
Buffalo Herds are Slaughtered-400 Slaughter of the Buffalo herds began early in the 1870’s. By 1873, the herds north of Texas had been completely wiped out and the hunters began to move onto the Texas plains. Market for the Buffalo hides began by Charles Rath and brother John and J. Wright Mooar. Hunters wanted only the hide of the buffalo. Some Anglo Americans knew how important the buffalo was to the Native Americans and proposed a law to protect the buffalo. General Philip Sheridan, commander of the U.S. Military Department of the Southwest opposed the law and helped defeat this. Knowing that the buffalo provided food, clothing and other necessities, the Native Americans then began plans for war.
The Attack on Adobe Walls-500 June 1974, Quanah Parker and several hundred warriors from 5 Native American nations attacked a buffalo hunter’s camp at Adobe Walls. The Native Americans failed to take Adobe Walls. Then, many Native Americans left reservations to join the fighting. 190 Anglo Americans were killed over the next two months.
The Red River Campaign- 100 President Grant now put the army in charge of the Native American affairs. First battle, Red River Campaign was fought in August, Texas Rangers fought also. Major John B. Jones led the Frontier Battalion. They fought 21 battles against Native Americans.
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon-200 The most decisive battle. Led by Colonel Ranald S. MacKenzie. They set fire to Comanche, Kiowa and Cheyenne villages. More than 1,000 horses were destroyed to prevent the Native Americans from retrieving them. Without food, horses and shelter, the Native Americans could not survive.
Native Americans began making their way to reservations. Some continued to defy the army but most of the Native Americans did settle into reservations.
Last remaining Comanche Band-300 Kwahadies surrendered in June Quanah Parker, also surrendered and worked to settle disputes among the various Native American nations. He fought for right and represented Native Americans in Washington D.C.
After the Red River Campaign-400 Kickapoo and Apache warriors continued their fight for several more years along the Rio Grande.
After the Red River Campaign-500 Native Americans were rarely seen on the prairies and plains of Central and West Texas.
Buffalo Soldiers End the Wars-100 By 1878, raids by Kickapoo were over but the Apaches continued their raids. Victorio led the Apaches and they fought in Mexico, Texas and New Mexico. Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson fought the Apaches and forced them across the Rio Grande into Mexico where Mexican soldiers trapped them. Victorio was killed. This marked the end of the Apache wars in Texas. The ninth and tenth cavalries were made up entirely of African American soldiers. They were famous throughout the state. They were experienced campaigners, and skilled in warfare. African American graduate of West Point Military Academy: Lieutenant Henry Ossian Flipper. (Member of the tenth cavalry_ African American troops were called ‘buffalo soldiers” by the Native Americans.
South Texas Renegades- 200 Problems in South Texas Renegades or outlaws were robbing settlements and towns. Deserters from the Civil war and outlaws crossed into Texas. Some ranchers expanded their land and herds of cattle since there were no real laws set which resulted in many people losing their land. Texas Rangers came to gain peace but they mistreated Mexican Americans and as a result innocent people suffered.
Juan N. Cortina-300 Defended the rights of Mexicans and Tejanos before the Civil War. Noted as an outlaw by the Texas Rangers and considered responsible for violence along the Rio Grande. He was arrested by the Mexican army and removed from the Valley. Cattle raids then decreased. Texas Rangers continued to patrol after Cortina was arrested.
Time of Sadness for Native Americans-400 Native American would never again be free to roam as they had. Many young Native Americans were placed in boarding schools. They were made to wear Anglo clothing, cut their hair and speak English. Disease and starvation killed many of the Native Americans. Population of the Native Americans decreased drastically.
A New Era Begins-500 Many Anglo Americans moved into West Texas now that there was no threat of raids. New towns were built. Railroads played an important part in bringing farming communities to lands that had been the home of Native Americans.