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Less Law, More Order: Shifting debate from tough/too tough to stop victimization and save taxes Irvin Waller, Director, Institute for Prevention of Crime,

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Presentation on theme: "Less Law, More Order: Shifting debate from tough/too tough to stop victimization and save taxes Irvin Waller, Director, Institute for Prevention of Crime,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Less Law, More Order: Shifting debate from tough/too tough to stop victimization and save taxes Irvin Waller, Director, Institute for Prevention of Crime, University of Ottawa, Canada

2 2 Key Messages Debate on tough/too tough is misguided because it does not solve real problem of violence Canada is not doing enough to take years of accumulated research and knowledge on crime prevention and use it to protect Canadians. Relying only on criminal justice is not enough to keep us safe from crime as half a million victims of sexual assaults and half a million break-ins show Canadians believe in crime prevention but we need supports and resources to build a safer Canada.

3 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 3 Introduction: Truth and Sense, Not Giuliani Life better, crime persistent Tough on criminals costs $200 billion. US taxpayer pays twice Canadian for … one in four prisoners in world are in USA - delivers little at high price Giuliani´s zero tolerance (compstat) more timing than real Need for popular book to empower voters and policy makers –Make criminological conclusions accessible –Spell out policy implications

4 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 4 Less Law, More Order The Truth about Reducing Crime Irvin Waller Evidence explained to voter on costs of law and order, what has worked, and how to reduce victimization

5 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 5 Violent Crime Recorded by New York Police Department 1980-2000

6 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 6

7 7 Chapter I Tough on Crime, Tough on Us –Crime is tough on many Crime is still real risk to victims – up a lot then down a fair bit –Tough on victims Victims often abandon CJS Victimizing victims and more –Tough on taxpayers More police, more courts and much more prisons Even with crime down, it costs us all –Tough to get results –Tough on causes is tougher on crime

8 Statistics Canada: Victimization - 2004 8 The latest victimization survey by Statistics Canada estimates that in 2004: 1 in 4 Canadians were the victims of at least one crime; nearly half a million –women were sexually assaulted; –households experienced a break-in or an attempted break-in; and –households experienced a motor vehicle theft or theft of vehicle parts.

9 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 9

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11 11 Proportion of victimizations that are reported to police, cleared by charge,and where the offender is found guilty, Canada 2004 100% Some crimes have a much higher clearance rate than others - 85% of homicides are solved by police (Dauvergne & Li, 2006). Offenders who commit multiple, serious crimes are more likely to be convicted than other offenders, and more likely to have multiple convictions (Home Office, 2007). Assault Sexual Assault Break and enter Robbery Other property offences 33% 7% 4%

12 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 12 What works to reduce victimization: Prestigeous agencies have reviewed accumulation of meta-analyses of evaluations United Nations –World Health Organization, 2002, 2004 –UN Guidelines on Crime Prevention, 1996, 2002 –Habitat – Safer Cities, 1996- Authoritative Sources –National Research Council, 1998-2005 (USA) –British Inspectorate of Police, 1998 (UK) –Home Office and Treasury, 1997 (UK) –Report to US Congress, 1997 (USA) –Safety and Security, 1997 (South Africa) –Audit Commission, 1996 (UK)

13 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 13 Chapter 2 Pay to Keep Kids from Crime, Not behind Bars –Family and School Experiences that Influence Risk of Offending Why offend persistently – longitudinal studies –Invest in Parenting and Child Development Early childhood Adolescents – mentor, stay in school, YIP, …. –Invest in Helping Kids to Succeed with Mentors, School, and College –Invest in Making Schools Safe for Kids –Invest in Keeping Youth in Community –Legislate an Office to Stop Misspending on Youth at Risk

14 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 14 Make youth flourish rather than crime

15 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 15 Large scale data sets confirm social, situational and location of crime 5% of youth account for 55% of offences – Longitudinal studies confirm 5% risk factors such as relative poverty, ineffective parenting and dropping out of school 4% of victims account for 44% of victimisation –Victimisation studies confirm 4% risk life routines such as not guarding goods, vulnerable to opportunity, close to offenders Hot spot locations for drugs and other offences –Police statistics confirm that hotspots concentrate offenders and victims geographically

16 Hussein 2006 16 Focus on risk factors Family Neglect Abuse Conflict Low supervision Lack of bonding Family Neglect Abuse Conflict Low supervision Lack of bonding Individual Substance misuse Low motivation Aggressiveness Poor self management Social skills deficits Individual Substance misuse Low motivation Aggressiveness Poor self management Social skills deficits School Academic failure Truancy Dropping out Low interest Early misbehaviour School Academic failure Truancy Dropping out Low interest Early misbehaviour Neighbourhood Disorganisation Extreme poverty Drugs and guns Poor living conditions Low social capital Neighbourhood Disorganisation Extreme poverty Drugs and guns Poor living conditions Low social capital Peer Delinquent friends Gang membership Alienation Lack of pro-social models Peer Delinquent friends Gang membership Alienation Lack of pro-social models

17 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 17 Proven strategies for reducing crime Quantum Opportunities Program 1.Analysis that violence correlated to high school drop out in disadvantaged teens 2.Plan doable intervention school and academic 3.Implement quality controlled solution  after school activities: tutoring, computer skills training, event planning, volunteering, college/employment planning, etc.  small remuneration for participation (~$1/hr)  match money earned towards college fund 4.Evaluate Impacts (Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) in 5 US cities) Reduced high school dropout by 27% Increased attendance at post-secondary education by 26% Reduced youth arrests by 71% over 4 years

18 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 18 Proven strategies for reducing crime Youth Inclusion Programme 1.Analysis that excluded youth likely persistent offenders 2.Plan to multiply proven pilot project by Youth Justice Board 3.Implement in 72 high crime & deprived estates in England & Wales  Identify 50 most at-risk youth (13-16yr) living in high-crime n’hoods  Provide them with >5 hrs/wk of positive programming:  mentoring, sports and recreation, skills training in literacy, anger management, dealing with gangs and drugs, etc. 4.Evaluate impacts Reduced school expulsions by 27% Reduced youth arrests by 65% Reduced overall crime in n’hoods by 16% to 27%

19 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 19 Proven strategies for reducing crime Home Visits by Public Health Nurses 1.Analyse literature 2.Plan solution 3.Implement RCT in Elmira (NY) and Memphis (TN):  Target at-risk families (i.e., marginalized teen mothers) with newborns and toddlers  Provide continued prenatal care, parent education, training and support  Improve access to family, local services and opportunities 4.Evaluate impacts Reduced verified cases of child abuse and neglect by 80% through to age 15 Reduced youth arrests by 66% through to age 15 Reduced runaways by 60% through to age 15

20 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 20 Audit Commission

21 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 21 What works to reduce victimization: An ounce for prevention equals a pound for mass incarceration

22 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 22 Chapter 3 Outlaw Violence, Not Men Outlaw Violence against Women Outlaw Violent Conflict Resolution Outlaw Handguns Outlaw Destructive Driving Outlaw Alcohol Abuse Outlaw Drug Wars Outlaw Death Penalty to Stop Killing

23 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 23 World report on violence and health World report on violence and health

24 24 A comparison: Fourth R & Roots of Empathy Fourth RRoots of Empathy Target Population Grade 9 and 10 students in health class.Kindergarten to grade 8 students. Intended Outcomes Developing healthy relationships, social skills and capacity among youth through a harm reduction approach targeting multiple forms of violence. Build levels of empathy to produce more respectful and caring relationships; to reduce levels of bullying and aggression; and to break the cycle of violence and poor parenting. Key Elements Teaching healthy relationship skills through core curriculum units. Involves students, the school, parents and the larger community. Meets Ministry of Education Learning Expectations; first implemented in Thames Valley District School Board in London Ontario Classroom visitations with a neighbourhood infant and parent to learn from and interact with a baby to promote emotional literacy. Endorsed by ON Public School Boards Association and Curriculum Services Canada, but is not an official part of curriculum. Evaluation Short term findings include reported healthier behaviours and attitudes. Longer term, randomized control trial results expected 2007. Short term findings include increased emotional and social understanding, and reduced levels of bullying and aggression. Longitudinal evaluation to be completed in 2007.

25 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 25 What works to reduce victimization Partnerships recommended internationally - Violence against women Preventing violence against women by investing in promising strategies and evaluating outcomes Tackling risk factors in school-aged youth, for example by: –Addressing bullying in school and dating and peer violence by promoting healthy relationships –The Fourth R and Roots of Empathy Integrated multi-agency response involving social services, law enforcement, commuity agencies and courts –A strong coordinated community response enhances the ability of the CJS to respond effectively –One-stop centres High-level leadership and commitment –National leadership – White ribbon campaign –Strong societal message endorsing anti-violence norms, expands public awareness

26 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 26 Chapter 4 Watch Out for Your Own Watching with neighbors –Neighborhood watch Watching for your own –Private security, alarms or neighbors Watching on cameras –CCTV Watching with cell phones Watching out for opportunity

27 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 27 Problem oriented partnerships Local government: Seattle (1972-76) Mayor established Law and Justice Planning Office 1.Analysis –analysed crime, victimization and public opinion data –presented plan to City council who approved priorities on burglaries, sexual assaults, and store robberies –analyzed risk factors causing each priority 2.Plan –implemented preventive solutions for each 3.Solution Burglary targeted by paid workers Lived-in look plus, neighbhours supporting … 4.Outcomes were scientifically evaluated large reductions (50% plus in RCT)

28 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 28 Chapter 5 Police Smarter, Not More Putting Police Work on Trial Smarter Policing, Not More, Gave Marginal Returns in New York Collaboration and Smarter Policing – Probable Cause for Boston Drop Community Policing Reduces Disorder Not Volume of Crime in Chicago

29 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 29 Problem oriented partnerships: Boston Strategy to Prevent Youth Violence 1.Analysis by Boston PD, Kennedy and School of Public Health (Harvard U) 2.Plan  Loose partnership with firm action on causes and enforcement 3.Solutions  Conduct crackdowns to target youth and gangs that persist in violence.  Reduce the availability of firearms and disrupt gun markets  Communicate a strong message from families and authorities that gun-related violence is unacceptable and dangerous  Provide adult education, job training and job opportunities 4.Results –71% reduction in homicides by youth aged 24 and under within 12 months –70% reduction in gun assaults for all ages (compared to the annual average during the 5 years prior #29

30 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 30 Problem oriented partnerships Chicago’s Alternative Policing Strategy 1.Analysis locally u monthly meetings; projects; civilian outreach staff; court advocacy 2.Plan developed by police and neighbhors u Organizational decentralization: smaller districts & beats for accountability 3.Solutions u Determined locally but combination of enforcement and community action 4.Outcomes - 5 pilot districts after 18 months Recorded robbery down 58%, larger than other US cities Public confidence in police better for ethnic minorities Reduced car theft, street crime, gangs & drugs, decay, graffiti Fear of crime down 20% among highest fear groups

31 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 31 Chapter 6 Guarantee Justice and Support for Crime Victims Crime is harmful to victims, justice is recognizing it No justice without crime victims Doing justice to support victims Just reparation for victims Restorative Justice for Victims How will Victims get Justice –The Right to be Heard

32 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 32 Expert organizations propose multi-sector strategy (governance) of crime prevention 1. Safety Diagnosis Crime challenges Risk factors Community assets 2. Action Plan Set clear priorities Strategic action on risk factors 3. Implementation Coordination Setting targets 4. Evaluation Process achievements Evidence of crime reduction *Leadership * Partners: top officials from schools, housing, public health, social service, police and so on * Guided by proven knowledge about risk factors * Community engagement * Increase sustained investment in prevention

33 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 33 Crime and Disorder Act (England and Wales) Started in 1998 3 year cycle Examples on Internet of first and second cycles showing –safety audits –crime reduction plans Usually include priorities and reduction targets Often include comparisons with other local government areas

34 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 34 Chapter 7 Make Cities Tough on Causes U.S. Mayors call for Cities to be Tough on Causes –International movement of Mayors – Habitat and so on Cities must Sustain Action on Causes –Bogotá Cities Diagnose Causes and Plan Solutions –International consensus that multiple causes require integrated solutions involving multiple sectors Office to Prevent Crime to Focus Cities on Risk Factors –Sustained solutions that target risk factors and priority neighborhoods

35 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 35 A detailed breakdown of the targets for each Core Priority Theme Group is contained in an Action Plan published separately. The Action Plan accompanies Birmingham Community Safety Partnership's Strategy for 2005-2008 and will be updated during the course of the Strategy's implementation.

36 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 36

37 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 37 Communities that Care (Projects in some States in the USA and some in other countries) 1.Analyse risk factors 2.Selecting the most effective actions to promote healthy youth development (silent on governance strategy for delivery) –Evidence based analysis of risk factors using surveys of youth –Use of a “menu” of proven best practices to address specific risk and protective needs 3.Implement 4.Evaluations show promising results in reducing risk factors, improving youth development, and some reduction in drug use and delinquent behaviour (especially in communities that have the support and infrastructure to sustain the framework)

38 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 38 Chapter 8 Shift from ¨Pay for Law¨ to ¨Invest in Order¨ Actions to Prevent Crime Based on Truth –Invest in Youth in the Community –Stop Violence against Women and Children –Help Neighbors Watch and Design to Reduce Crime –Tackle Risk Factors with both Prevention and Enforcement –Do Justice to Support for Victims

39 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 39 Chapter 8 Shift from ¨Pay for Law¨ to ¨Invest in Order¨ Shift Requires Skill, Independence, and Planned Change Crime Bill for Office for Crime Prevention –National and Statewide Plans to Shift from Reaction to Prevention –Shift 10 percent from Law and Order to Organize for Prevention and Victim Support –Support Local Government Leadership to Deliver Crime Prevention –Develop and Train Crime Prevention Professionals –Establish Data on Risk Factors, Victimization and Location

40 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 40

41 World Health Organization (2004) Implementation Guide 41 Action plan to get results World Report on Health and Violence: 1.Data – –Victimization surveys (see Argentina), mapping of crime and social data - More on family violence – More on surveys of youth offending 2.Researching violence (add training and education) –Major studies - More on family and coaching/training 3.Primary prevention (using what works - secondary prevention) –Early childhood, YIP, Quantum, problem oriented partnerships, designing out crime, limiting guns and alcohol 4.Social and gender equality –4th R, school priorities, family law, police-court - … 5.Support for victims –Victim assistance, good samaritan – More norms/training for police and lawyers, all women´s police stations – victim rights in court 6.National plan of action (add local government plans) –local government CS – More crime reduction agency, mainstream into police, schools …

42 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 42 Action plan to get results UN Guidelines for Crime Prevention –Crimes can be prevented without any overall increase in costs and with substantial collateral benefits Governments at all levels are responsible to: –Establish centres to spearhead and sustain crime prevention –Organize schools, families, policing, justice, private sector and others to tackle the multiple causes of crime – problem solving strategy –Use proven strategies –Invest in training for prevention workers –Invest in data –Engage the public

43 43 Federal/Provincial/Municipal Initiatives Federal National Crime Prevention Centre (PSEPC) Provincial Quebec Ministry of Public Safety Ontario Youth Challenge and Opportunities fund Manitoba car theft reduction strategy Alberta and BC developing Integrated Crime Prevention Strategy Municipal (eg) SafeEdmonton Toronto Safer City Strategy Waterloo Region Violence Prevention Plan (and Community Safety Partnership)

44 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 44 The issue is not to choose between investing more or less in: general policies, such as education, housing and families, that improve the well being and likely contribute to less crime, or standard law enforcement and criminal justice that responds to 911 calls, catches and convicts offenders, and expects to change offenders’ future behaviour through incapacitation or rehabilitation.

45 IPC (2007) Report for Alberta Task Force on Crime Prevention and Community Safety 45 1.Action Plan for Safer Alberta: Crime reduction and safe ommunities Alberta would develop and implement an action plan to reduce victimizations, based on a three year cycle that builds on the following steps: 1.Analyse the distribution and causes of crime across the province, including gaps in services – privilege mapping 2.Involve key sectors, such as education, youth services, housing and law enforcement, in identifying joint milestones, priorities and measurable goals such as reductions in victimization and fear; 3.Develop and sustain promising pre-crime prevention programs that are targeted to risk factors associated with victimization and offending; 4.Assess changes in social development and other primary prevention policies in order to recommend improvements 5.Monitor and evaluate progress in achievement of milestones and goals.

46 IPC (2007) Report for Alberta Task Force on Crime Prevention and Community Safety 46 2.Safer cities Municipal safety and crime reduction strategies establish a crime prevention board or coalition involving sectors such as education, health, housing, child protection and policing coordinate the development and implementation of a strategic planning process that analyses local crime problems, develops solutions, implements programs and evaluates progress coordinate the implementation of effective local solutions, including guiding federal and provincial programs encourage local partnerships to solve crime problems

47 IPC (2007) Report for Alberta Task Force on Crime Prevention and Community Safety 47 3.Prevention and Police Partnerships capable and accountable for solving crime problems Sustain and multiply partnerships taking responsibility for solving crime problems, such as those focusing on: –Violence against women and children –Aboriginal populations in both urban and isolated areas –High crime neighbourhoods –High volume property crimes such as break-ins and car theft –Alcohol and drug abuse Strengthen the capacity of these partnerships to: –Analyse the evidence on crime problems in order to solve them –Use a combination of prevention, policing and citizen engagement –Evaluate outcomes

48 IPC (2007) Report for Alberta Task Force on Crime Prevention and Community Safety 48 4.Multiply what works promising programs that target factors leading to crime Multiply programs that target at-risk situations and that have been proven to prevent crime, such as those that: –Provide enriched services to youth at risk of social problems by increasing their inclusion, involvement in pro- social activities and job training –Increase the training given to youth to use non-violent ways of resolving conflicts (through programs such as the ‘Fourth R’ and ‘Roots of Empathy’) and strengthen their life skills and chances of graduating from school –Enhance support (such as enriched home visiting) to disadvantaged mothers who are at risk of not providing consistent caring for their young children;

49 IPC (2007) Report for Alberta Task Force on Crime Prevention and Community Safety 49 5. Sustaining safe communities and crime reduction Institutionalise political leadership Establish a small crime prevention responsibility centre –With an advisory board –With a secretariat with links to the spectrum of ministries Ensure sustained funds to: –Support innovation and maintenance of municipal strategies, partnerships, and targeted programs –Develop better training, standards and data (victimization, integrated and mapped crime and social data, surveys of youth offending), Create legislation to maintain the responsibility centre and its activities at the highest level of government.

50 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 50 These recommendations should achieve Reductions in victimization in targeted areas over a two to four year time period with broader reductions over a ten year period. These strategies provide sustained benefits by not only reducing crime and violence but also investing in young people, women and neighbourhoods to multiply the benefits beyond less crime and fear.

51 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 51 Alberta Crime Reduction and Safe Communities Task Force: Prevention – Recommendations Government response to accept in principle 16. Implement targeted pilot projects to provide comprehensive community-based services to at-risk youth and their families. 17. Establish a Family Source within the provincial government to provide a central source for information, resources, and community connections. 20. Identify and map high crime areas and support pilot projects targeted at improving safety in those “hot spots”. Accepted 22. Take targeted action to increase the percentage of crimes that are reported. 23. Establish an ongoing mechanism for municipalities to provide input into provincial policing priorities. 24. Encourage all municipalities to develop and implement a safe communities strategy.

52 Waller (2006) Less Law, More Order 52 Alberta Crime Reduction and Safe Communities Task Force: Prevention – Recommendations Government response accepted in principle 26. Provide three-year provincial funding for community-based social agencies with proven outcomes. 27. Adapt provincial funding formulas and criteria to reflect the impact and needs of “shadow” populations.Further Study Needed 28. Expand the current tax deduction for charitable contributions to include time spent on volunteer activities. Further Study Needed 29. Partner with Alberta’s First Nations and the federal government to jointly develop pilot projects designed to build safer communities, reduce crime and address the needs of at-risk community members. 30. Fully implement the recommendations of Alberta’s Commission on Learning regarding Aboriginal education and expand initiatives aimed at improving high school completion rates for Aboriginal students.Accept 31. Establish a comprehensive, longer-term Alberta crime reduction and prevention strategy coordinated and supported by a dedicated responsibility centre within the provincial government.Accept

53 Building a Safer Canada: First Report of National Working Group Analysis, Recommendations and next steps for CPO

54 Building Safer Canada - National Working Group 54 What is the National Working Group? A pan-Canadian group of national associations and experts –Municipalities (FCM) –Chiefs of Police (CACP) –Victims of Crime (CAVA) –Offenders (JHS) –Practitioners - City of Toronto, Waterloo Region –Academics To provide independent but evidence based perspective on ways to make Canada safer. Organized and led by Institute for the Prevention of Crime as part of contribution agreement with National Crime Prevention Centre

55 Building Safer Canada - National Working Group 55 What led to National Working Group? Agenda for Safer Canada (2003) –National Policy Forum on crime prevention in Waterloo Region ( Less Law, More Order: The Truth about Reducing Crime (later published in 2006) –limits of US use of zero tolerance and hyperincarceration –what works to reduce youth violence, violence against women and how to make policing smarter –how to reduce crime for less Project with National Crime Prevention Centre – Harnessing knowledge to prevent crime Interest in independent evidence based Institute –Minister of Public Safety and University of Ottawa announced Institute for Prevention of Crime (fall 2006) – provides crime trends, examples of what works, and governance strategies for

56 Building Safer Canada - National Working Group 56 National Working Group is one of 3 components of Harnessing knowledge for crime prevention project funded by NCPC 1.National Working Group Developing consensus on actionable recommendations 2.Municipal Network Community safety managers from major municipalities Share best practice to reduce crime 3.Knowledge Review State of the art reviews of most recent knowledge in crime prevention

57 Statistics Canada, General Social Survey, 2004 57 What is crime challenge facing Canada? 1 in 4 Canadians were the victims of crimes such as thefts, vandalism, and assaults annually- and approximately 40% of these were victimized more than once. Close to half a million women were sexually assaulted and over half a million households experienced a break-in or an attempted break- in. 2 million persons were victims of physical assault Only 30% of victims report crime to police in Ontario – 8% of sexual assault victims

58 Department of Justice Canada, 2003; Ekos (2004) 58 What is spent and what do Canadians want? Canada spends more than $13 billion each year on police, corrections and other criminal justice services. Impact on crime victims equivalent to $50 billion Two out of every three Canadians believe their provincial government should place crime prevention among the top five priorities, along with health care, education, child poverty, and the environment.

59 Less Law, More Order 59 Who has called for collaborative, evidence based crime prevention World Health Organization calls for: –National Action Plan –Use of indicators of results (eg victimization surveys) –Investment in what works United Nations calls for –Evidence based strategies –Responsibility centres to lead on diagnosis and planning –Multi-sectoral collaboration and public engagement Habitat calls for –Diagnosis, plan, implementation, evaluation and responsibility centres for cities

60 Less Law, More Order 60 What are examples of effective prevention? Youth Inclusion Programs (UK) reduced youth arrests by 65% and overall crime in neighbourhoods by up to 27% when they were implemented in 110 of the most deprived and high crime areas. The Fourth R curriculum (Ontario) is a school curriculum -based program designed to prevent bullying, dating violence and peer violence which has already shown significant reductions in aggressive behaviour towards peers. Problem solving partnerships (Boston), where smart policing (guided by university research) was combined with families and service agencies –- to address youth carrying illegal guns, demonstrated a 71% reduction in homicides committed by youth within two years.

61 Less Law, More Order; Alberta Task Force 61 What are leading examples of better governance of crime reduction Ontario has municipal strategies in –Waterloo Region, Toronto, Ottawa England and Wales has: –Youth Justice Board that has demonstrated the prevention of youth crime in 72 priority zones –Every municipality has a strategic plan based on diagnosis of crime problems, plan and evaluation with targets (42% reduction in victimization over 10 years from this and other factors) Alberta has –$470 million (over 3 years) to be invested in combination of tough on persistent offenders and tackling risk factors

62 Institute for the Prevention of Crime - National Working Group 62 Status of Crime Prevention in Canada Some tentative conclusions 1.Many projects and policies but not part of action plan 2.Many good social development policies that keep crime lower but not that much lower than US 3.Few focused on concentrations that present high risk to crime 4.Not known which are evidence based 5.Some partnerships exist around violence against women but not promoting prevention as successfully as needed 6.Some local neighborhood partnerships use problem solving but many looking for problem solving tools 7.Some only project funded

63 IPC (2006) Building a Safer Canada 63 Building a Safer Canada by improving our knowledge of what works and our capacity to apply this knowledge in practice. ELEMENTS OF SUCCESS CURRENT SITUATIONGAPSRECOMMENDATIONS Collaboration and problem-solving partnerships  Federal/provincial/territorial collaboration on crime prevention  Increasing support from within criminal justice system, especially from the police and municipal governments  Resistance to diverting resources from reactive to preventive approaches  No clear and measurable vision of community safety  No national framework to guide work or to establish inter-sectoral roles and responsibilities  Tension between central authority and local priorities  Hard to identify the leaders or spokespersons  A vision of the contribution of prevention to well-being  A National Framework for collaboration  A ten-year action plan  Permanent and adequately funded responsibility centres at all orders of government Concentrate investments on highest needs  Recent National Crime Prevention Centre emphasis on evidence-led focused action  Some important success stories  Debates over appropriate indicators  Lack of required data  Success stories not well-known  Difficult to elicit a clear interest in prevention  Insufficient access to user-friendly data  Identify clear and measurable indicators to serve as benchmarks for diagnoses and evaluations  Assure user-friendly access to required data  Invest in training and technical assistance Develop and sustain community capacity  Recognition that communities need the tools to do the job  Highest needs communities feel left out  Special requirements of First Nations  Central orders of government faster to download responsibilities than resources - communities often do what they can instead of what they should  Higher levels of sustainable resources  Greater investment in research and development in prevention in order to assure a better evidence base for decisions  Improved technical assistance to practitioners through the design and delivery of targeted training initiatives Adequate and sustained supports and resources  National Crime Prevention Centre for federal funding  Provincial initiatives by Nova Scotia, Québec, Alberta and British Columbia  Domestic and partner violence initiatives in some jurisdictions  Emergence of municipal responsibility centres, but few are adequately funded  Over-reliance on short-term project-based funding  Little sign of growth, vulnerability to cuts  Little indication of adequate and sustained support in provinces and territories  Municipalities have responsibilities, but not the tools  More resources and supports to problem- solving partnerships  Implement the Horner Commission recommendation to invest the equivalent of 5% of justice spending in prevention  More attention to the challenge of sustaining success Public engagement  Broad public support for prevention  Less indication of actual political or practical engagement  Little sense of how to better educate public (link message, media and audience)  Must address the political role of crime  Greater investment in public education initiatives  More research on how to reach different types of audiences in the most effective manner

64 Building Safer Canada - National Working Group 64 NWG recommended an action plan to reduce crime and violence in Canada: 1.A national framework and action plan to reduce crime, using what has been successful 2.Federal, provincial and municipal responsibility centres to guide investment to tackle concentrations of risk factors before they result in offending and victimization 3.Better research and development, technical assistance, training and data (e.g. victimization surveys) to guide Canadian initiatives in crime prevention and reduction 4.Adequate and sustained investment by federal, provincial and territorial governments to support municipal and community action 5.Improved information for and engagement of the public in crime prevention

65 Institute for the Prevention of Crime 65 Immediate Endorsements “The recommendations are consistent with the direction of the CACP and our partners in the Coalition on Community Safety, Health and Well-being. We hope governments listen.” Steven Chabot, President of the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police. “FCM supports community-based approaches to crime prevention. But while communities are the cornerstone of effective crime prevention, we need long-term federal funding and coordination to create and sustain a national approach.” Winnipeg Councillor Gord Steeves, President of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM)

66 Institute for Prevention of Crime 66 What are next steps? Documents –Municipal Network report on Safer Cities in Canada –Declaration to be endorsed by City Councils calling for action –Leaflet on Building Safer Canada and Safer Cities McMurtry-Curling Task Force on Youth Violence Calls for Action –Chair of Waterloo Region and Mayor of Kitchener –Mayor of Toronto –Big City Mayors´ Caucus –Federation of Canadian Municipalities

67; 67 What can JHS do? 1.endorse the recommendations of the Institute for the Prevention of Crime’s report “Building a Safer Canada: First Report of the National Working Group on Crime Prevention 2.Take the necessary actions to call on all orders of government to establish the infrastructure and provide sustained funding to implement these recommendations”. 3.Spread the word through Less Law, More Order

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