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GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College World War II.

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Presentation on theme: "GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College World War II."— Presentation transcript:


2 GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College World War II

3 The Promise of Collective Security A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points, 8 January, 1918

4 The Failure of Collective Security

5 World War Two: Basic Facts Up to 50 million killed Two wars Europe The Pacific “Total War” (industry, military, media) State-sponsored terrorism Led to new, American-dominated order

6 Treaty of Versailles (1919) Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau, Wilson

7 Germany’s War Bill $33 billion in reparations Lost its overseas colonies Lost territory to Poland Lost its air force Lost all but 100,000 of its army troops

8 The New Shape of Europe

9 The View from Germany


11 Background Wilson’s liberal vision Replace “balance of power” politics with “Collective Security” Basic Principles re: aggression Outlaw it Deter it by forming a coalition of non- aggressive states Punish it collectively

12 The League of Nations Was not a “world government” Relied on voluntary compliance with “international law” Operated without the participation of its creator

13 League Successes Brokered agreement between Greece and Bulgaria, avoiding war Supervised peace and disarmament negotiations 1921 Washington Treaty Conference 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact

14 League Failures France continues to balance against Germany Alliances with reconfigured states of Poland and Romania Alliances with new states of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia Germany claims a “soft” border on its east Japan insists on its claim in Manchuria Italy invades Ethiopia

15 The 1930s Global Depression Rise of militarism in Japan Rise of fascism in Europe Mussolini already in power in 1922 Hitler followed in 1933

16 Building to War in Europe 1920s: hyperinflation under Weimar Republic 1930s: economic crisis deepens 1933: Adolph Hitler and his National Socialist Party win election

17 Ultra-nationalism

18 Sequence of Events October 1933: Germany leaves League of Nations March 1935: Hitler renounces Treaty of Versailles, announces military build-up March 1938: Germany invades Austria September 1938: Hitler and Chamberlain agree to partition of Czechoslovakia March 1939: Germany rolls across the rest of Czechoslovakia

19 “The democracies have called on their most loyal troops to encircle Germany.” (Simplicissimus, 9 April 1939) “The Campaign of Lies”

20 Sequence of Events (cont.) August 1939: Hitler signs non-aggression pact with Stalin September 1939: Germany invades Poland April 1940: Germany invades Norway May 1940: Hitlers launches blitzkrieg into Holland, Belgium, France. July 1940: German bombers turned away by RAF aviators in “Battle of Britain” September 1940: Germany, Italy and Japan ally as “Axis Powers” June 1941: Germany invades its “ally,” the Soviet Union

21 1942: A World Divided

22 Building to War in the Pacific 1920s: Chafing under new rules of international system 1930s: Economic crisis deepens 1932: “Government by assassination” (and by the military) begins in Tokyo

23 Ultra-nationalism

24 Sequence of Events 1931: Japan establishes puppet state of “Manchukuo” in northeast China 1933: Japan leaves League of Nations in protest over Lytton Committee report 1937: Japan declares all-out war on China 1940: U.S. imposes embargo on oil and steel exports to Japan 1940: Japan seized French colonies in Indochina 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, bringing U.S. into war 1942: Japan grabs Singapore, Malaysian Peninsula, Philippines, Indonesia

25 “The Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere”

26 1944: The Beginning of the End

27 1945: The End


29 Realism Collective Security doesn’t work Power vacuum U.S. remained isolationist Soviet Union was isolationist U.K. used appeasement

30 Liberalism Fascism, militarism and land Class divisions in Europe French conservatives: “Better Hitler than Blum” British Tories and negotiations with Soviet Union Economic collapse

31 Constructivism Perverse Nationalism Constructing “The Other” as subhuman And then killing it



34 “Let the punishment fit the crime”




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