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AP World History Chapter 10 A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe
The Franks 400 to 700 AD The strongest of the Germanic Tribes that helped bring down Rome. One of many small Germanic Kingdoms. Known as the Carolingian Empire.
Clovis & Charles Clovis a vicious Frankish king conquers many barbarian tribes. Became Christian when he prayed to Christian God to win the battle and did. Charles was the son of Clovis and defeated the Muslims at the battle of Tours. His name changed to “Charles the Hammer”.
The Age of Charlemagne He was granted the title emperor of Rome by the pope for defeating rebellious nobles in Rome. Charlemagne united areas of France, Germany, Italy, and Spain under his rule. He collected scholars from all over Europe. He forced the pagan Saxons to convert to Christianity.
Vikings Charlemagne’s Empire fractured under increased pressure from another cycle of Viking settlements in Europe. The Vikings were assimilated into the lands they settled. Vikings also ravaged and settled in England.
Nobles For feudal nobles, warfare was a way of life. Rival lords battled for power. Lesser lords (vassals) would swear loyalty to a more powerful lord. In return for the men and loyalty the greater lord would give land and protection to the vassal.
The Parish Priest Parish Priests might be the only contact with the church a peasant had. The Priest would… –Administer the sacrament. –Preach the Gospels. –Guided people on issues regarding morality.
The Village Church The social center of the middle ages. Some were local schools. Prosperous communities built elaborate stone churches. Some village churches obtained relics of dead saints. Members of the local church were required to pay tithes.
Monks & Nuns The Benedictine Rule was a set of rules set up to govern the lives of monks in monasteries. 1.Obedience to the abbot or abbess. 2.Poverty. 3.Chastity.
Reform Movements In 1073 Pope Gregory VII outlawed marriage for priests and prohibited simony. (the selling of Church offices)
Jews in Europe Jewish communities were taxed heavily in Europe. In the 10 th century many Christians began to persecute the Jews. They were blamed for wars, bad economics, famine, and the plague. The result was the killing of Jews. As well as massive Jewish migration out of Western Europe to Eastern Europe.
New Technologies New iron plows in Europe. New harness that allowed horses to be used instead of oxen. New wind mills. New water mills.
Expanding Production Cleared forests. Drained swamps. Three field system started. –One planted with wheat. –One planted with peas and beans. –One left unplanted. Restored fertility in the land.
Trade Revives Merchant companies formed. Silk road expanded from Constantinople. Trade fairs would occur each year in the same place. Large towns developed around trade fair locations.
Commercial Revolution Trade fairs led to a need for more capital in the form of money which led to banks. The practice of using a bill of exchange was adopted. –A person would go to the bank and deposit his money. –He could then go to a bank in another city and withdraw money. –This reduced the risk of having your money stolen when traveling.
Role of Guilds A guild is an association of merchants, craftsman, or artists. (Like a Union) The guilds dominated town life. No one but guild members could work in the trade. Created a monopoly on the work.
Town & City Life Towns were poorly organized. Towns had no garbage pickup, people just through their waste into the streets.
Norman Conquest William with the backing of the Pope invades England in 1066 where he defeats King Harold. Legacy: A gradual blending of French and English cultures occurs.
Growth of Royal Power William kept land for himself and kept track of where and who was building castles. To learn about his kingdom he created the “Domesday Book”. It listed every castle, field, and pigpen in England. Legacy: Helped to create an effective tax for future monarchs.
The Magna Carta King John got into trouble with his nobles over taxes. They forced John to sign a legal document called Magna Carta. Magna Carta first gave the Nobles rights in court. Second it made clear that the king must obey the law.
Development of Parliament Started as the great council of nobles. It evolved into Parliament. (French for Parler) Parliament approved money for wars. Edward I expanded Parliament to include the “common people”
The Capetians In 987 feudal nobles elected Hugh Capet to be King. He was weak enough for everyone. He made the throne hereditary. They were the kings of France for 300 years. They slowly gained power as they played nobles against each other.
Philip Augustus The very powerful King of France. He started new towns. He organized a standing army. He introduces a national tax. He expanded the royal lands. He became the most powerful ruler in Europe by his death.
Louis IX, King and Saint Became a Saint within 30 years of his death. Led two wars against Muslims. He persecuted Jews and Heretics. Expanded royal courts. Ended serfdom in his lands. Outlawed private wars. Helped create nationalism in France.
Philip IV Clashes with the Pope He tried to raise cash by taxing the church. Pope Boniface VIII said “God has set popes over kings and kingdoms,” Philip sent troops to get the Pope, he was beaten and died soon afterward. A French Pope was elected and he moved the papal court to France. (Avignon)
The Estates General Phillip rallied French support by setting up the Estates General in 1302. The Estates General never gained the power of the purse, so they never got as strong as the English Parliament.
The Holy Roman Empire After Charlemagne’s death his empire dissolved. In 936 Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title King of Germany. Otto like Charlemagne defended the Pope in Italy and was given the title of Holy Roman Emperor.
Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory wanted sole power to appoint clergy.
Emperor Henry IV Henry said the Bishops owned their lands as fiefs to him. Many rebellious nobles in Germany saw an opportunity to undermine Henry by supporting the Pope.
The Struggle Intensifies Pope Gregory excommunicate Henry, freeing his subjects from their allegiance to the emperor. Henry crossed the Alps. “with bare feet and clad only in a wretched woolen garment,” he presented himself to the Pope as a repented sinner. Later he led an army to Rome and forced the Pope into exile.
Concordat of Worms In 1122 both sides agreed to a compromise. The Pope had the right to appoint clergy while the King had the right to invest fiefs.
Frederick Barbarossa He fought the northern Italian city states. He was defeated by the Pope and the Lombard League. Married into the southern Italian nobility further entangling Germany into Italian politics.
Frederick II Tried and failed like his father to bring the northern Italian city states under control. Germany paid the price for these wars. It took Germany another 600 years to become totally unified.
Height of Church Power Pope Innocent III led a crusade against the simple Christians called the Albigensians. Tens of thousands died in the crusade.
Pope Urban II Urban II called on the knights of Christendom to join a crusade to save Constantinople, Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Turks. Urban II called on the knights of Christendom to join a crusade to save Constantinople, Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim Turks.
A Global Epidemic The bubonic plague spread by flee bites. The flees would bite the infected rat then bite a person. When the person was bit the flee would vomit into the soar spreading the disease.
“India was depopulated” “Mesopotamia, Syria, and, Armenia were covered with dead bodies” 35 million people died in China alone 25 million died in Europe
Economic Effects. European trade collapsed. Survivors demanded higher wages. Farm land was converted to sheep grazing because it took less labor. The bad economy coupled with the plague sparked revolts around Europe.
Upheaval in the Church Church lost many monks and priests. Pope Clement moved the church to France in 1309, under pressure by the French King. The church was kept in France for seventy years. (known as the Babylonian Captivity of the church) In 1378 reformers elected a new pope in Rome. Two and sometimes three Popes claimed to the true “vicar of Christ”. In 1417 a church council was held at Constance finally ending the crisis.
The Hundred Years War. Started when the English King Edward III claimed the French crown in 1337. The English longbow was devastating in battle against France.
Joan of Arc A 17 year old peasant woman. She convinced the French King to let her lead the army because she was sent by God to save France. She won many victories for France before being captured and executed by the English. The French defeated England in the Hundred Years War with the help of Joan of Arc and cannons.