2The Basic SentenceA complete sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought.A sentence has two basic parts—a subject and a verb.
3Cowboys herd cattle for a living. SUBJECTThe subject of a sentence is the word or group of words that answers the question Who? or What? before the verb.VCowboys herd cattle for a living.Our ranch was in Texas.The noun Cowboys is the subject that tells us whoherd the cattle. The noun ranch is the subject thattells what was in Texas.
4Identify the subject in the following sentences. Sara delivers the newspaper.SaraHer customers like getting the paper delivered.customers
5The newspaper is important to them. Kevin bought the newspaper at the corner store.KevinHe paid $1.25 for the paper.He
6VERBThe verb in a sentence tells what the subject does, what is done to the subject, or what the condition of the subject is.SBobby gave an unforgettable show.Their prize horse was stolen.She has been blue all day.Gave is the verb in the first sentence. It tells what thesubject, Bobby, did. In the second example, wasstolen tells what was done to the subject horse. Hasbeen in the third example is a linking verb. It tellssomething about the condition of the subject by linkingshe to the word blue.
7Identify the verb in the following sentences. The paper prints three editions.printsSara delivers 68 papers every day.deliversShe gets paid once a week.paidIt has been a good job for Sara.has been
8The man in the cowboy hat. COMPLETE THOUGHTA group of words expresses a complete thought if it can stand by itself and still make sense.The man in the cowboy hat.“What about the man in the cowboy hat?” areader might ask. Standing by itself, this groupof words makes no sense. The verb is missing.
9If the sentence is complete, state complete, but if the sentence is not a complete sentence state not complete.Some drivers enjoy automobile racing.completeThe sport tests the skills.The drivers race over tracks or courses.
10Each course has a different length, design, and construction. completeIt has become one of the most popular.not completeThis activity is a year-round sport.
11Racing cars have two categories. completeOpen-wheeled vehicles and closed- wheeled vehicles.not completeThe wheels are not under the fenders in open-wheeled vehicles.In closed-wheeled vehicles.
12The reader is wondering “What about a three-foot-tall pumpkin?” SENTENCE FRAGMENTSSentence fragments lack either a complete subject or a complete verb.Also they do not express a complete thought.Example: A pumpkin three feet tall.The reader is wondering “What about a three-foot-tall pumpkin?”
13Sentence Fragments Can be: A group of words with no subject A group of words that includes a possible subject but no verbA group of words with a possible subject and only part of a possible verbA subordinate clause standing alone (Subordinate clause – a group of words containing both a subject and a verb that cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence)
14Correcting Sentence Fragments ProblemSentenceHer sister.The fragment lacks a predicate.What did her sister do?Her sister discovered the poems in her bureau.Wrote about her emotions.The fragment lacks a subject.Who wrote about her emotions?The gifted poet wrote about her emotions.Of meaning.The fragment lacks both a subject and a predicate.Her poems contain many layers of meaning.
15Identify each of the following groups of words as either a sentence or a fragment. On top of the hill.FragmentOn the morning of the big game.Leave now.Sentence
16The book with the World War II pictures. FragmentAfter trying to convince them all morning.Gum chewing is not allowed.SentenceAt another time, perhaps in another era.
17A bus racing toward the intersection. FragmentAlthough he invited me to the party.Must be out of the apartment by this time tomorrow.I know the way to the downtown shopping area.Sentence
18FOUR FUNCTIONS OF SENTENCES Different kinds of sentences have different purposes. A sentence can make a statement, ask a question, give a command, or express strong feeling. All sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark. The punctuation mark at the end of the sentence is determined by the purpose of that sentence.
19DECLARATIVE SENTENCES A declarative sentence states an idea and ends with a period.A great network of railways crisscrosses the vast Indian subcontinent.The trains are fast and efficient.
20INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.Whose ticket is this?Which countries in Europe and Asia have high-speed trains?
21IMPERATIVE SENTENCEAn imperative sentence gives an order or a direction and ends with either a period or an exclamation mark.Most imperative sentences start with a verb. In this type of sentence, the subject is understood to be you.Follow the directions carefully to get to the correct platform.Wait for me!
22EXCLAMATORY SENTENCEAn exclamatory sentence conveys strong emotion and ends with a exclamation mark.She’s not telling the truth!What an outrage that is!
23After each sentence, state the appropriate punctuation mark for the sentence. Next, identify the type of each sentence; declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.Please correct your misspelled words nowperiod/imperativeGinseng is an herb used for medicinal purposesperiod/declarative
24What a terrible accident exclamation mark/exclamatoryWhich artist do you admire the mostquestion mark/interrogativeMary Pickford starred in My Best Girlperiod/declarativeHow many videotapes do you have in your collection
25Drive to the first traffic light and turn right period/imperativeWho is this strange personquestion mark/interrogativeIn Greek mythology Orpheus wrote beautiful musicperiod/declarativeStop that shoutingexclamation mark/imperative
26COMPLETE SUBJECTS AND COMPLETE PREDICATES Every sentence can be divided into two parts—a complete subject and a complete predicate. The complete subject consists of the subject and any words related to it. The complete predicate consists of the verb and any words related to it.The complete subject and the complete predicate include all modifiers, articles, and prepositions relating to each.
27Complete SubjectThe complete subject of a sentence consists of the subject and any word related to it.A complete subject may be just one word– the subject itself—or it may be several words.The simple subject is always a noun or a pronoun.
28Complete PredicateThe complete predicate of a sentence consists of the verb and any words related to it.A complete predicate may be just one word—a verb—or it may be several words.The simple predicate is always a verb.
29Underline the subject once and the verb twice Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Then draw a vertical line between the complete subject and the complete predicate.Some famous outlaws played a big part in the Wild West.Jesse James was an American outlaw.
30He was known throughout the country for bank and train robberies. The young man joined a band of pro-Confederate raiders at the age of fifteen.The group was led by William Clarke Quantrill.Jesse James later organized his own group of robbers.
31The members of the group included his older brother, Frank, and Robert Younger. One infamous bank robbery occurred at the First National Bank of Northfield in Minnesota.The clerk would not open the safe.The gang shot him before they escaped.
32COMPOUND SUBJECTS AND COMPOUND PREDICATE A sentence might have more than one simple subject or simple predicate.
33Charlotte Brontë and Emily Brontë were sisters. A compound subject is two or more simple subjects that have the same predicate. The subjects are joined by and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, or but.Compound SubjectCharlotte Brontë and Emily Brontë were sisters.When the two simple subjects are joined by and or by both…and, the compound subject is plural. Use the plural form of the verb to agree with this plural compound subject.
34Either Charlotte or Emily is my favorite author. Neither Charlotte nor her sisters were outgoing.In the first sentence, Emily is the nearer subject, and so the singular form of the verb is used. In the second sentence sisters is the nearer subject, and so the plural form is used.
35A compound predicate is two or more simple predicates, or verbs, that have the same subject. The verbs are connected by and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, or but.Many students read the novel Jane Eyre and enjoy it.The compound predicate in this sentence consists of read and enjoy. Both verbs agree with the plural subject.
36State whether each sentence has a compound subject or a compound predicate and state what they are. Either Charlotte or Emily Brontë will be the subject of my research paper entitled “A Great Nineteenth-century Novelist.”compound subject, Charlotte/Emily Brontë
37Neither Anne nor Emily is as well known as Charlotte. compound subject, Anne/EmilyMany readers have read and enjoyed their books.compound predicate, read/enjoyedSome scholars buy or sell rare editions of their books.compound predicate, buy/sell
38Neither the Brontë sisters nor their brother was long-lived. compound subject, sisters/brotherThe Brontë sisters lived and wrote in Yorkshire, England.compound predicate, lived/wroteCharlotte’s mother and sisters died early.compound subject, mother/sisters
39Anne Brontë both wrote novels and worked as a governess. compound predicate, wrote/workedScholars study and discuss the Brontës’ novels.compound predicate, study/discussEither Wuthering Heights or Jane Eyre is my favorite Brontë novel.compound subject,Wuthering Heights/Jane Eyre
40State the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Neither Emily Brontë’s poems nor her one novel (deserve, deserves) to be forgotten.deservesEither Wuthering Heights or her poetic works (draw, draws) praise from critics everywhere.draw
41Her writing (show, shows) an understanding of people and (reveal, reveals) her love of England. shows, revealsCritics and other readers (discuss, discusses) and (praise, praises) her single novel.discuss, praise
42Critics or other readers (pay, pays) more attention to Charlotte Brontë’s works. Charlotte’s novel Shirley (paint, paints) a portrait of Emily and (show, shows) her feelings for her sister.paints, shows
43Charlotte’s novels (reflect, reflects) her life experiences and (reveal, reveals) her dreams. reflect, revealBoth Anne Brontë’s novel Agnes Grey and Charlotte's The Professor (tell, tells) love stories.tell
44Charlotte’s novels Shirley and Villette (receive, receives) less attention today. Neither Anne’s the Tenant of Wildfell Hall nor Charlotte’s Shirley (attract, attracts) many readers today.attracts
45SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES All sentences can be organized into four basic sentence structures:SimpleCompoundComplexCompound-Complex
46SIMPLE SENTENCEA simple sentence consists of a single independent clause.A simple sentence can be short or long.It must contain a subject and a verb.It may also contain compliments, modifiers, and phrases.
47Some simple sentences contain various compounds—a compound subject, a compound verb, or both. Other parts of the sentence may also be compound.A simple sentence, however, does not contain any subordinate clauses.A simple sentence contains only one clause.
48Examples of Simple Sentences One subject and verb: The siren sounded.Compound Subject: Cats and dogs ran down the street.Compound Verb: My sister acts and sings in the play.
49Compound Subject and Verb: Art and archaeology reflect and explain Jerusalem’s history. With Phrases and Complements: A written history dating back to 600 B.C. was found in a cave near Jerusalem.
50COMPOUND SENTENCESIndependent clauses are the key elements in a compound sentence.A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. The independent clauses in most compound sentences are joined by a comma and one of the coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet).
51I got tired near the end of it. I liked the movie.I got tired near the end of it.Are both of these independent clauses?Do both have a subject, verb, complete thought?Give examples of how to join them.
52Sometimes a semicolon (;) is used to join independent clauses in a compound sentence. Compound sentences contain no subordinate clauses.The population of Israel is approximately 4,700,000, but only eight percent of the people live in rural areas.
53The trains and the buses recently changed their schedule. State if the sentence is a simple or a compound sentence. Identify the subject and the verb. Identify any coordinating conjunctions that join two independent clauses.The trains and the buses recently changed their schedule.simplesubjects – trains, busesverb – changed
54We reached the second traffic light and turned left. simplesubjects – weverb – reached, turnedThe situation is confusing, but I hope to have more news soon.compoundsubjects – situation, Iverb – is confusing, hope
55Movies are just great, but I still enjoy a good book often. compoundsubjects – Movies, Iverb – are, enjoycoordinating conjunction - butHave you found the map to Albany yet?simplesubjects – youverb – have, found
56Bill and Sue opened their gifts and examined them carefully. simplesubjects – Bill, Sueverb – opened, examinedTom and Steve will meet us at the game, or they will phone their regrets.compoundsubjects – Tom, Sue, theyverb – will meet, will phonecoordinating conjunction - or
57CLAUSES A clause is a group of words with its own subject and verb. Clause like phrases, are the building blocks of sentences. Unlike phrases, however, clauses do contain a subject and verb.There are two basic types of clauses, which have an important difference between them.Independent clauseSubordinate clause
58INDEPENDENT CLAUSEAn independent clause has a subject and a verb and can stand by itself as a complete sentence.The length of a clause has little to do with whether it can stand alone.
59Each of the following examples can stand alone because it expresses a complete thought. The reporter shouted.The Dome of the Rock, a Jerusalem landmark, is a holy site.
60SUBORDINATE CLAUSEA subordinate clause/dependent clause has a subject and a verb but cannot stand by itself as a sentence. It is only part of a sentence.A subordinate clause/dependent clause does not express a complete thought, even though it contains a subject and a verb.
61since the country was divided when the phone rangwhom I often admiredsince the country was dividedEach of these clauses has a subject and a verb. But each lacks something. The first clause: when the phone rang. When the phone rang, what happened? More information is needed to complete the thought.
62Comparing Two Kinds of Clauses Independent ClauseSubordinate or Dependent ClauseS VHe arrived this morning.S Vif he arrived this morningS VThe mosque has a golden dome.since the mosque has a dome
63A subordinate clause usually must be combined with an independent clause. In the following examples, the subordinate clauses are italicized.Since he arrived this morning, he has been working at top speed.I will call the manager of the hotel tomorrow if the room is not clean.
64if, since, when, although, because, while Some subordinate clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions, such as:if, since, when, although, because, whileOther subordinate clauses begin with relative pronouns such as:who, which, that, whom, whoseThese words are clues that the clause may not be able to stand alone.
65Identify the subordinate clause and independent clause. Even though it is not large, Jerusalem has many museums and holy sites.SC - Even though it is not largeIC - Jerusalem has many museums and holy sites
66Since the city was politically divided in 1948, various religions have claimed ownership of the holy sites.SC - Since the city was politically divided in 1948IC - various religions have claimed ownership of the holy sitesWhen the city was divided, Jerusalem became known as East and West Jerusalem.SC - When the city was dividedIC - Jerusalem became known as East and West Jerusalem
67East Jerusalem has most of the tourist attractions and museums because it is centered around the walled Old City.SC - because it is centered around the walled Old CityIC - East Jerusalem has most of the tourist attractions and museumsBecause Jerusalem has three Sabbaths, a large portion of West Jerusalem closes down on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday.SC - Because Jerusalem has three SabbathsIC - a large portion of West Jerusalem closes down on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday
68Complex Sentence A complex sentence consists of: one independent clause andone or more subordinate clausesThe subordinate clause can be an adjective or adverb clause.
69This is the expensive camera that he wants to buy. independent clause - This is the expensive camerasubordinate clause - that he wants to buy.If I visit the country fair, I will bring you something.independent clause - I will bring you something.subordinate clause - If I visit the country fair,
70Compound Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence consists of:two or more independent clausesone or more subordinate clauses.If I am asking to play first-string, it will be an important milestone for me, but I am also afraid that the challenge will be too great.
71Label each sentence complex or compound-complex Label each sentence complex or compound-complex. Underline each independent clause and circle around each subordinate clause.The house that you described is too large.complexAs soon as I got the letter, I read the instructions, and I knew that I wanted to go.compound-complex
72This is the book that Margo wants for her birthday. complexI will help you plan the picnic, which, unfortunately, I will not be able to attend.I know the way to the state capital, but I may get lost as we get close since I really have been there only once.compound-complex
73The company which contacted by phone happens to have a bad reputation. complexAlthough I studied my notes carefully, I still did poorly on the test.I can reach my father on the phone, or I will go to his office if I have enough time.compound-complex
74BibliographyAlfieri, Catherine. "Nounsense." Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Sept <http://www.mcwdn.org/grammar/endsf.html>.Carroll, Joyce A., Edward E. Wilson, and Gary Forlini. Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.Royster, Jacqueline J., and Mark Lester. Writer's Choice Grammar Workbooks : Teacher's Wraparound Edition. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996.