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Effective Sentences Unit 4. The Basic Sentence A complete sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence has two basic parts—a.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Sentences Unit 4. The Basic Sentence A complete sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence has two basic parts—a."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Sentences Unit 4

2 The Basic Sentence A complete sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence has two basic parts—a subject and a verb.

3 SUBJECT The subject of a sentence is the word or group of words that answers the question Who? or What? before the verb. V Cowboys herd cattle for a living. V Our ranch was in Texas. The noun Cowboys is the subject that tells us who herd the cattle. The noun ranch is the subject that tells what was in Texas.

4 Identify the subject in the following sentences. Sara delivers the newspaper. Sara Her customers like getting the paper delivered. customers

5 The newspaper is important to them. newspaper Kevin bought the newspaper at the corner store. Kevin He paid $1.25 for the paper. He

6 VERB The verb in a sentence tells what the subject does, what is done to the subject, or what the condition of the subject is. S Bobby gave an unforgettable show. S Their prize horse was stolen. S She has been blue all day. Gave is the verb in the first sentence. It tells what the subject, Bobby, did. In the second example, was stolen tells what was done to the subject horse. Has been in the third example is a linking verb. It tells something about the condition of the subject by linking she to the word blue.

7 Identify the verb in the following sentences. The paper prints three editions. prints Sara delivers 68 papers every day. delivers She gets paid once a week. paid It has been a good job for Sara. has been

8 COMPLETE THOUGHT A group of words expresses a complete thought if it can stand by itself and still make sense. The man in the cowboy hat. “What about the man in the cowboy hat?” a reader might ask. Standing by itself, this group of words makes no sense. The verb is missing.

9 If the sentence is complete, state complete, but if the sentence is not a complete sentence state not complete. Some drivers enjoy automobile racing. complete The sport tests the skills. complete The drivers race over tracks or courses. complete

10 Each course has a different length, design, and construction. complete It has become one of the most popular. not complete This activity is a year-round sport. complete

11 Racing cars have two categories. complete Open-wheeled vehicles and closed- wheeled vehicles. not complete The wheels are not under the fenders in open- wheeled vehicles. complete In closed-wheeled vehicles. not complete

12 SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Sentence fragments lack either a complete subject or a complete verb. Also they do not express a complete thought. Example: A pumpkin three feet tall. The reader is wondering “What about a three-foot-tall pumpkin?”

13 Sentence Fragments Can be: –A group of words with no subject –A group of words that includes a possible subject but no verb –A group of words with a possible subject and only part of a possible verb –A subordinate clause standing alone (Subordinate clause – a group of words containing both a subject and a verb that cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence)

14 Correcting Sentence Fragments FragmentProblemSentence Her sister. The fragment lacks a predicate. What did her sister do? Her sister discovered the poems in her bureau. Wrote about her emotions. The fragment lacks a subject. Who wrote about her emotions? The gifted poet wrote about her emotions. Of meaning. The fragment lacks both a subject and a predicate. Her poems contain many layers of meaning.

15 Identify each of the following groups of words as either a sentence or a fragment. On top of the hill. –Fragment On the morning of the big game. –Fragment Leave now. –Sentence

16 The book with the World War II pictures. –Fragment After trying to convince them all morning. –Fragment Gum chewing is not allowed. –Sentence At another time, perhaps in another era. –Fragment

17 A bus racing toward the intersection. –Fragment Although he invited me to the party. –Fragment Must be out of the apartment by this time tomorrow. –Fragment I know the way to the downtown shopping area. –Sentence

18 FOUR FUNCTIONS OF SENTENCES Different kinds of sentences have different purposes. A sentence can make a statement, ask a question, give a command, or express strong feeling. All sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a punctuation mark. The punctuation mark at the end of the sentence is determined by the purpose of that sentence.

19 DECLARATIVE SENTENCES A declarative sentence states an idea and ends with a period. A great network of railways crisscrosses the vast Indian subcontinent. The trains are fast and efficient.

20 INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. Whose ticket is this? Which countries in Europe and Asia have high-speed trains?

21 IMPERATIVE SENTENCE An imperative sentence gives an order or a direction and ends with either a period or an exclamation mark. Most imperative sentences start with a verb. In this type of sentence, the subject is understood to be you. Follow the directions carefully to get to the correct platform. Wait for me!

22 EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE An exclamatory sentence conveys strong emotion and ends with a exclamation mark. She’s not telling the truth! What an outrage that is!

23 After each sentence, state the appropriate punctuation mark for the sentence. Next, identify the type of each sentence; declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. Please correct your misspelled words now period/imperative Ginseng is an herb used for medicinal purposes period/declarative

24 What a terrible accident exclamation mark/exclamatory Which artist do you admire the most question mark/interrogative Mary Pickford starred in My Best Girl period/declarative How many videotapes do you have in your collection question mark/interrogative

25 Drive to the first traffic light and turn right period/imperative Who is this strange person question mark/interrogative In Greek mythology Orpheus wrote beautiful music period/declarative Stop that shouting exclamation mark/imperative

26 COMPLETE SUBJECTS AND COMPLETE PREDICATES Every sentence can be divided into two parts—a complete subject and a complete predicate. The complete subject consists of the subject and any words related to it. The complete predicate consists of the verb and any words related to it. The complete subject and the complete predicate include all modifiers, articles, and prepositions relating to each.

27 Complete Subject The complete subject of a sentence consists of the subject and any word related to it. A complete subject may be just one word– the subject itself—or it may be several words. The simple subject is always a noun or a pronoun.

28 Complete Predicate The complete predicate of a sentence consists of the verb and any words related to it. A complete predicate may be just one word—a verb—or it may be several words. The simple predicate is always a verb.

29 Underline the subject once and the verb twice. Then draw a vertical line between the complete subject and the complete predicate. Some famous outlaws played a big part in the Wild West. Jesse James was an American outlaw.

30 He was known throughout the country for bank and train robberies. The young man joined a band of pro- Confederate raiders at the age of fifteen. The group was led by William Clarke Quantrill. Jesse James later organized his own group of robbers.

31 The members of the group included his older brother, Frank, and Robert Younger. One infamous bank robbery occurred at the First National Bank of Northfield in Minnesota. The clerk would not open the safe. The gang shot him before they escaped.

32 COMPOUND SUBJECTS AND COMPOUND PREDICATE A sentence might have more than one simple subject or simple predicate.

33 A compound subject is two or more simple subjects that have the same predicate. The subjects are joined by and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, or but. Compound Subject Charlotte Brontë and Emily Brontë were sisters. When the two simple subjects are joined by and or by both…and, the compound subject is plural. Use the plural form of the verb to agree with this plural compound subject.

34 Either Charlotte or Emily is my favorite author. Neither Charlotte nor her sisters were outgoing. In the first sentence, Emily is the nearer subject, and so the singular form of the verb is used. In the second sentence sisters is the nearer subject, and so the plural form is used.

35 A compound predicate is two or more simple predicates, or verbs, that have the same subject. The verbs are connected by and, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, or but. Many students read the novel Jane Eyre and enjoy it. The compound predicate in this sentence consists of read and enjoy. Both verbs agree with the plural subject.

36 State whether each sentence has a compound subject or a compound predicate and state what they are. Either Charlotte or Emily Brontë will be the subject of my research paper entitled “A Great Nineteenth-century Novelist.” –compound subject, Charlotte/Emily Brontë

37 Neither Anne nor Emily is as well known as Charlotte. –compound subject, Anne/Emily Many readers have read and enjoyed their books. –compound predicate, read/enjoyed Some scholars buy or sell rare editions of their books. –compound predicate, buy/sell

38 Neither the Brontë sisters nor their brother was long-lived. –compound subject, sisters/brother The Brontë sisters lived and wrote in Yorkshire, England. –compound predicate, lived/wrote Charlotte’s mother and sisters died early. –compound subject, mother/sisters

39 Anne Brontë both wrote novels and worked as a governess. –compound predicate, wrote/worked Scholars study and discuss the Brontës’ novels. –compound predicate, study/discuss Either Wuthering Heights or Jane Eyre is my favorite Brontë novel. –compound subject, Wuthering Heights/Jane Eyre

40 State the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Neither Emily Brontë’s poems nor her one novel (deserve, deserves) to be forgotten. –deserves Either Wuthering Heights or her poetic works (draw, draws) praise from critics everywhere. –draw

41 Her writing (show, shows) an understanding of people and (reveal, reveals) her love of England. –shows, reveals Critics and other readers (discuss, discusses) and (praise, praises) her single novel. –discuss, praise

42 Critics or other readers (pay, pays) more attention to Charlotte Brontë’s works. –pay Charlotte’s novel Shirley (paint, paints) a portrait of Emily and (show, shows) her feelings for her sister. –paints, shows

43 Charlotte’s novels (reflect, reflects) her life experiences and (reveal, reveals) her dreams. –reflect, reveal Both Anne Brontë’s novel Agnes Grey and Charlotte's The Professor (tell, tells) love stories. –tell

44 Charlotte’s novels Shirley and Villette (receive, receives) less attention today. –receive Neither Anne’s the Tenant of Wildfell Hall nor Charlotte’s Shirley (attract, attracts) many readers today. –attracts

45 SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES All sentences can be organized into four basic sentence structures: –Simple –Compound –Complex –Compound-Complex

46 SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. A simple sentence can be short or long. It must contain a subject and a verb. It may also contain compliments, modifiers, and phrases.

47 Some simple sentences contain various compounds—a compound subject, a compound verb, or both. Other parts of the sentence may also be compound. A simple sentence, however, does not contain any subordinate clauses. A simple sentence contains only one clause.

48 Examples of Simple Sentences One subject and verb: The siren sounded. Compound Subject: Cats and dogs ran down the street. Compound Verb: My sister acts and sings in the play.

49 Compound Subject and Verb: Art and archaeology reflect and explain Jerusalem’s history. With Phrases and Complements: A written history dating back to 600 B.C. was found in a cave near Jerusalem.

50 COMPOUND SENTENCES Independent clauses are the key elements in a compound sentence. A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. The independent clauses in most compound sentences are joined by a comma and one of the coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet).

51 I liked the movie. I got tired near the end of it. Are both of these independent clauses? Do both have a subject, verb, complete thought? Give examples of how to join them.

52 Sometimes a semicolon (;) is used to join independent clauses in a compound sentence. Compound sentences contain no subordinate clauses. The population of Israel is approximately 4,700,000, but only eight percent of the people live in rural areas.

53 State if the sentence is a simple or a compound sentence. Identify the subject and the verb. Identify any coordinating conjunctions that join two independent clauses. The trains and the buses recently changed their schedule. –simple –subjects – trains, buses –verb – changed

54 We reached the second traffic light and turned left. –simple –subjects – we –verb – reached, turned The situation is confusing, but I hope to have more news soon. –compound –subjects – situation, I –verb – is confusing, hope

55 Movies are just great, but I still enjoy a good book often. –compound –subjects – Movies, I –verb – are, enjoy –coordinating conjunction - but Have you found the map to Albany yet? –simple –subjects – you –verb – have, found

56 Bill and Sue opened their gifts and examined them carefully. –simple –subjects – Bill, Sue –verb – opened, examined Tom and Steve will meet us at the game, or they will phone their regrets. –compound –subjects – Tom, Sue, they –verb – will meet, will phone –coordinating conjunction - or

57 CLAUSES A clause is a group of words with its own subject and verb. Clause like phrases, are the building blocks of sentences. Unlike phrases, however, clauses do contain a subject and verb. There are two basic types of clauses, which have an important difference between them. –Independent clause –Subordinate clause

58 INDEPENDENT CLAUSE An independent clause has a subject and a verb and can stand by itself as a complete sentence. The length of a clause has little to do with whether it can stand alone.

59 Each of the following examples can stand alone because it expresses a complete thought. The reporter shouted. The Dome of the Rock, a Jerusalem landmark, is a holy site.

60 SUBORDINATE CLAUSE A subordinate clause/dependent clause has a subject and a verb but cannot stand by itself as a sentence. It is only part of a sentence. A subordinate clause/dependent clause does not express a complete thought, even though it contains a subject and a verb.

61 when the phone rang whom I often admired since the country was divided Each of these clauses has a subject and a verb. But each lacks something. The first clause: when the phone rang. When the phone rang, what happened? More information is needed to complete the thought.

62 Comparing Two Kinds of Clauses Independent Clause Subordinate or Dependent Clause S V He arrived this morning. S V if he arrived this morning S V The mosque has a golden dome. S V since the mosque has a dome

63 A subordinate clause usually must be combined with an independent clause. In the following examples, the subordinate clauses are italicized. Since he arrived this morning, he has been working at top speed. I will call the manager of the hotel tomorrow if the room is not clean.

64 Some subordinate clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions, such as: if, since, when, although, because, while Other subordinate clauses begin with relative pronouns such as: who, which, that, whom, whose These words are clues that the clause may not be able to stand alone.

65 Identify the subordinate clause and independent clause. Even though it is not large, Jerusalem has many museums and holy sites. SC - Even though it is not large IC - Jerusalem has many museums and holy sites

66 Since the city was politically divided in 1948, various religions have claimed ownership of the holy sites. SC - Since the city was politically divided in 1948 IC - various religions have claimed ownership of the holy sites When the city was divided, Jerusalem became known as East and West Jerusalem. SC - When the city was divided IC - Jerusalem became known as East and West Jerusalem

67 East Jerusalem has most of the tourist attractions and museums because it is centered around the walled Old City. SC - because it is centered around the walled Old City IC - East Jerusalem has most of the tourist attractions and museums Because Jerusalem has three Sabbaths, a large portion of West Jerusalem closes down on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. SC - Because Jerusalem has three Sabbaths IC - a large portion of West Jerusalem closes down on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday

68 Complex Sentence A complex sentence consists of: – one independent clause and –one or more subordinate clauses –The subordinate clause can be an adjective or adverb clause.

69 This is the expensive camera that he wants to buy. independent clause - This is the expensive camera subordinate clause - that he wants to buy. If I visit the country fair, I will bring you something. independent clause - I will bring you something. subordinate clause - If I visit the country fair,

70 Compound Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence consists of: two or more independent clauses one or more subordinate clauses. If I am asking to play first-string, it will be an important milestone for me, but I am also afraid that the challenge will be too great.

71 Label each sentence complex or compound- complex. Underline each independent clause and circle around each subordinate clause. The house that you described is too large. complex As soon as I got the letter, I read the instructions, and I knew that I wanted to go. compound-complex

72 This is the book that Margo wants for her birthday. complex I will help you plan the picnic, which, unfortunately, I will not be able to attend. complex I know the way to the state capital, but I may get lost as we get close since I really have been there only once. compound-complex

73 The company which contacted by phone happens to have a bad reputation. complex Although I studied my notes carefully, I still did poorly on the test. complex I can reach my father on the phone, or I will go to his office if I have enough time. compound-complex

74 Bibliography Alfieri, Catherine. "Nounsense." Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Sept Carroll, Joyce A., Edward E. Wilson, and Gary Forlini. Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall, Royster, Jacqueline J., and Mark Lester. Writer's Choice Grammar Workbooks : Teacher's Wraparound Edition. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996.

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